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    Progress in Biocontrol Research with Trichoderma
    GUO Run-fang; LIU Xiao-guang; GAO Ke-xiang; GAO Bao-jia; SHI Bao-sheng; ZHEN Zhi-xian
      
    Abstract388)      PDF (260KB)(1666)      
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    Cited: Baidu(108)
    Antibiosis of Xenorhabdus nematophilus Metabolites Against Phytophthora infestans

    YANG Huai-wen; ZHANG Zhi-ming; YANG Xiu-fen; JIAN Heng

      
    Abstract377)      PDF (183KB)(1141)      
    The antibiosis of metabolites from Xenorhabdus nematophilus against Phytophthora infestans was studied by using inhibitory test on plate The growth rate was inhibited 70% at concentration of 1 5-3ml/L of the fermentation filtrate, and 90%-100% at 6-50ml/L The hyphae was inhibited in growth but not destroyed completely at 12-50ml/L of the fermentation filtrate 50ml/L fermentation filtrate also resulted in 50% inhibition of sporangia germination of the fungus The metabolites permeated through potato tuber tissue for up to 3cm in depth within 24h, and thus could be used for the control of potato late blight by soaking potato tuber in the fermentation liquid
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    Cited: Baidu(100)
    Using Metarhizium flavoviride Oil Spray to Control Grasshoppers in Inner Mongolia Grassland
    ZHANG Ze-hua1;GAO Song1;ZHANG Gang-ying1;WANG Yang1;YANG Dong-bao1;ZHANG Zhuo-ran2;ZHENG Shuang-yue2;WANG Meng-long2
      
    Abstract350)      PDF (262KB)(1211)      
    Field experiments of using Metarhizium flavoviride ultra low volume oil spray to control grassland grasshoppers were carried out in Inner Mongolia in 1999. Results showed that the oil spray was effective to all the 5 species of grasshoppers, namely, Oedaleus decorus asiaticus B. Bienko, Angaracris rhodopa (F. W.), Dasyhippus barbipes (F. W.), Bryodema luctuosum luctuosum (Stoll) and B.tuberculatum dilutum (Stoll). 8 d after application, 48.0% of O.decorus asiaticus was killed and the mortality increased to 88.1% at the end of 12th day. New spores of the green fungus appeared on the dead locusts 7~10 d later. It was probable that the spores emerged from the locust cadaver would infect those locusts which had escaped the fungal spray.
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    Cited: Baidu(97)
    Selection of Endophytic Antifungal Bacteria from Capsicum

    HE Hong;CAI Xue-qing;HONG Yong-cong;GUAN Xiong;HU Fang-ping

      
    Abstract372)      PDF (106KB)(1497)      
    The endophytic antifungal bacteria were isolated and screened from Capsicum frutescens. Results indicated that population of endophytic bacteria ranged from 2.83×10 3 to 13.46×10 3 cfu per gram of fresh weight although it might vary depending on variety, tissue and planting location of the plant. Population of the endophytic bacteria were biggest in leaf, secondly in root, thirdly in stem and smallest in fruit. Leaf taken from capsicum planted in irrigated field harbored a bigger population of endophytic bacteria than that from non irrigated field. But for the endophytic bacteria in root, stem and fruit, plants growing non-irrigated field harbored more than that frowing in irrigated field. Of the 108 strains isolated, 28.7% expressed antagonism against growth of Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cubense and Fusarium oxysporum f. sp.  cucumerinum. Two of them (BS-2 and BS-1) were found not only to be inhibitive to the growth of some fungal pathogens, but also have 57.34%-94.08% control effect to the anthracnose caused by Colletotrichum gloeosporioides. These two strains were identified as Bacillus subtilis.
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    Cited: Baidu(90)
    Inhibition of Chito-oligosaccharide against Plant Virus Diseases
    MA Di;ZHAO Xiu-xiang;WU Yuan-hua
      
    Abstract346)      PDF (431KB)(857)      
    Chito-oligosaccharide was demonstrated to be of protective function to Nicotiana glutinosa and N. tabacum. It was most effective when treating the tobacco with chito-oligosaccharide at 40 μg/ml 10 d before inoculating TMV, resulting in suppression rate 78.0% of necrosis spots in N. glutinosa and 32.4% in N. tabacum. There was no suppression when treating 4 d before inoculation. Activities of PAL, POD, PPO, SOD and soluble protein content in leaves were demonstrated to be increased after spaying chito-oligosaccharide solution.
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    Cited: Baidu(84)
    Culture Conditions for Production of Phytotoxin by Alternaria alternata and Plant Range of Toxicity
    WAN Zuo-xi; QIANG Sheng; XU Shang-cheng; SHEN Zhen-guo; DONG Yun-fa
      
    Abstract345)      PDF (375KB)(1039)      
    The phytotoxin-producing capability of six isolates of Alternaria alternata isolated from world-wide weed Eupatorium adenophorum was compared Isolate 501 was the best for producing phytotoxin The optimal cultural conditions for producing phytotoxin were temperature 25℃, pH 4.13, cultured period 5 7d, dark and static Sevent four species of plants were selected to bioassay susceptibility to crude of phytotoxin using needling leaf in vitro The result showed that crude of phytotoxin had selective toxicity to the tested plants Fragaria ananassa, Sonchus oleracea, Commelina communis, C bengalensis, Robinia pseudoacacia and Alternanthera philoxeroides were the most susceptible plants to the toxin and may be used as bioassay materials of the toxin.
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    Cited: Baidu(79)
    Selection of a High Toxic Insecticide Strain 4.0718 of Bacillus thuringiensis
    DING Xue-zhi;XIA Li-qiu
      
    Abstract239)      PDF (175KB)(392)      

    30 strains of Bacillus thuringiensis were isolated from 858 samples of dryland, vegetable garden and rice soils in different ecological regions of Hunan province. One was selected from them as original strain7012c typical of B. thuringiensis. By means of multiple mutagenesis of UV and double NTG+LiCl and through microscopic examination of smear dyeing, it was first found that the insecticidal activity of B. thuringiensis closely related with the shape, size and number of the crystal protein and the proportion of spore and crystal protein. One high toxic mutation, strain 4.0718, was selected, and its toxicity to the larval of Plutella xylostella was 7.5 times higher than that of strain7012c and the lethal rate reached to 20%, 97% and 100% respectively after treatment of 6, 12 and 24 h. The virulence of 4.0718 did not change after transferation of ten generations.

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    Cited: Baidu(77)
    Optimization of Fermentation Conditions for Trichodermin by the Mutant Strain UL60-11 of Trichoderma taxi
    WANG Guo-ping 1, ZHENG Bi-qiang 1, ZHOU Zhuan-zhong 1, ZHANG Chu-long 2
      
    Abstract503)      PDF (153KB)(823)      
    To improve the trichodermin yield by the mutant strain UL60-11 of Trichoderma taxi ZJUF0986, fermentation conditions were optimized by single factor and uniform design with orthogonal test. Single factor test indicated glucose and starch were the best carbon sources, and peptone, yeast powder and ammonium tartrate were the best nitrogen sources. The optimal medium was composed of 23 g glucose, 15 g starch, 5 g peptone, 3 g yeast extract, 2 g ammonium tartrate, 0.25 g magnesium sulfate, 1.0 g potassium dihydrogen phosphate, 0.2 g sodium chloride and 0.4 g calcium nitrate by uniform design and orthogonal test. Under the optimal culture conditions of temperature 25 ℃, initial pH 4.0, inoculation volume of 10% with 48 h cultured seeds, medium volume 100 ml in 500 ml flask and rotation speed 150 r/min, the yield of trichodermin reached 632.16 μg/mL, increased 32% compared with that under the original fermentation conditions.
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    Cited: Baidu(70)
    Selection of Antagonistic Strains Against Watermelon Wilt and Their Biocontrol Efficiency
    JI Ming-shan;WANG Ying-zi;CHENG Genwu;LI Bo-qiang;ZHANG Guo-hui;LI Yan-li;HUI Wen-guang
      
    Abstract322)      PDF (171KB)(1031)      
    9 antagonistic Trichoderma spp. and 10 bacterial isolates against the pathogenic Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. niveum were isolated and selected from hundreds of soil and plant roots samples. Among the strains, Trichoderma viride TR 8 and Bacillus sp. B67 were the most effective ones and fermented to prepare their inocula and their mixture named Jiangenbao. Inoculation tests in greenhouse showed that all the biocontrol agents had good control effectiveness for control of watermelon wilt disease. Jiangenbao dust was more effective than its rwo constituents used alone. In field trials, when Jiangenbao dust diluted with soil at the ratio of 1∶50 was applied into seed delves before sowing, 80% control effect against watermelon wilt was obtained, which was apparently higher than that of carbendazim and amino-oligosaccharin. Furthermore, it was also observed that Jiangenbao dust could enhance watermelon plant growth.
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    Cited: Baidu(68)
    Cold Hardiness of Agrilus planipennis and Its Two Parasitoids,Spathius agrili and Tetrastichus planipennisi
    WU Hui 1,2;LI Meng-lou 1;YANG Zhong-qi 2;WANG Xiao-yi 2;WANG Hong-yan 3;BAI Ling 3
      
    Abstract377)      PDF (90KB)(735)      
    The cold hardiness of overwintering individuals of emerald ash borer (EAB), Agrilus planipennis Fairnaire, and its two parasitoids, Spathius agrili Yang (Hym., Braconidae) and Tetrastichus planipennisi Yang (Hym., Eulophidae) were determined. Results indicated that the super-cooling point and freezing point of EAB ranged from -26.38 to -23.04℃ and from -21.72 to -11.64℃, respectively. The super-cooling point and freezing point of S. agrili were -26.28℃ and -22.50℃, respectively; and of T. planipennisi, -24.48℃ and -21.87℃, respectively. Potential geographical distribution of EAB and the two parasitoids was estimated on the base of the current results and local climate, and it is suggested that local low temperature has little influence on their overwintering population.
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    Cited: Baidu(68)
    Soil Contamination by Chemical Pesticides and Its Bioremediation
    GUO Rong-jun, LI Shi-dong, ZHANG Li-jian, LI Zheng
      
    Abstract338)      PDF (122KB)(967)      
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    Cited: Baidu(66)
    Colonization of the Beneficial Endophytic Bacillus cereus B946 in Wheat
    LIU Zhong-mei;WANG Xia;ZHAO Jin-huan;WANG Qi;MEI Ru-hong
      
    Abstract346)      PDF (177KB)(811)      
    B946 (Bacillus cereus), a strain of the beneficial endophytic bacteria isolated from wheat, could prevent sharp eyespot of wheat. After it was marked with streptomycin and rifampin, colonization of the strain sprayed onto leaves in root, stem-base and leaf of wheat was investigated through diluting method. The results showed that the target strain could colonize internal leaf tissues inoculated by B946 and transfer to internal stem-base, the other leaves and root. And it could also transfer to stem-base and leaf of wheat when seeds were dipped. Higher concentration than 10 8 cfu/ml, 3h for seed treatment, and plant-growing temperature at 25℃ were good for the colonization and transference.
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    Cited: Baidu(66)
    Field Trial on the Control of Grasshoppers in Mountain Grassland by Oil Formulation of Metarhizium flavoviride
    LI Bao-ping;Roy Bateman;LI Guo-you;MENG Ling;ZHENG Yun;Ainiwar
      
    Abstract330)      PDF (214KB)(1135)      
    Oil formulation of Metarhizium flavoviride was used for the control of grasshoppers in the mountain grassland, Xinjing. Cage test showed that mortality of grasshoppers infected with the fungus began at the third day after application and the majority of grasshoppers was killed on 6th day (1 h sample) or on 7th (48 h sample). There was no significant difference in mortality among the grasshopper species. Field population decreased steadily from 6th day after application and reached 60.9% at 15th day and 73.7% at 18th day.
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    Cited: Baidu(62)
    Selection and Identification of Antagonistic Bacteria against Soil-borne Plant Pathogens

    JIANG Ying-hua;HU Bai-shi;LIU Feng-quan

      
    Abstract322)      PDF (171KB)(1035)      
    Totally 1056 bacterial strains were isolated from different plant rhizosphere soils,of which 7 strains showed antibiosis activity to phytopathogenic fungi,such as Rhizoctonia solani,Phytophthora capsici,Pythium aphanidermatum, Sclerotinia sclerotiorum,Fusarium oxysporium f.sp.vasinfectum,Fusarium solani,Verticillium dahliae,Ralstonia solanacearum and Xanthomonas campestris pv.campestris.Green house tests revealed that strain BOH2 and OH11 were most effective on controlling tomato bacterial wilt with the control efficiencies of 90.9% and 86.4%,respectively.Based on the phenotypic characteristics and analysis of the 16S rDNA fragment,OH11 was identified as Lysobacter enzymogenes,BOH3 was Pseudomonas fluorescens and others were Bacillus spp.

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    Cited: Baidu(61)
    Effects of Avirulent Strains of Ralstonia solanacearum on Tomato Bacterial Wilt
    CHEN Qing-he, WENG Qi-yong, HU Fang-ping
      
    Abstract1601)      PDF (92KB)(1243)      
    Avirulent strains (ATm044 and Asp061) of Ralstonia solanacearum were obtained via UV mutagenesis. It was demonstrated that the strains could colonize tomato tissue and induce tomato resistance against bacterial wilt but no inhibition to virulent strains. The strains were also tested as a biocontrol agent against tomato bacterial wilt in greenhouse and field. Result showed that the disease was reduced by 56.7% and 53.4% in greenhouse 20d after treatment and 53.8% and 37.7% in field 15d after treatment by ATm044 and Asp061 respectively.
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    Cited: Baidu(58)
    The Effect of Oligochitosan on the Activity of Defensive Enzyme and Zymogram of Isoenzyme in Tobacco Leaves
    DU Yu-guang;BAI Xue-fang;ZHAO Xiao-ming;JIANG Hua
      
    Abstract354)      PDF (148KB)(925)      
    The physiology and biochemistry resistance of induced by oligochitosan in tobacco to combat against TMV infection were studied. Tests on some defensive enzymes indicated that the activity of peroxidase (PO), catalase (CAT), polyphenoloxidase (PPO), phenlalanine ammonialyase (PAL) and β-1.3 glucanase in tobacco leaves increased after treatment with oligochitosan. Spraying oligochitosan could result in 7 bands of PO isoenzyme in leaves. So it was preliminarily considered that the induced resistance of oligochitosan in tobacco to resist against TMV was closely related to the activity and zymogram type of PO isoenzyme. There was no correlation between the activity of SOD, CAT or PPO and the induced resistance. Activity of PAL and β-1.3 glucanase was clearly increased after spraying oligochitosan or inoculating TMV, but the cumulative response of the two factors was not clear.
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    Cited: Baidu(57)
    Efficiency of Controlling Weeds, Insect Pests and Diseases by Raising Ducks in the Paddy Fields
    YU Sheng-miao;JIN Qian-yu;OUYANG You-nan;XU De-hai
      
    Abstract333)      PDF (243KB)(922)      
    In this paper, the efficiency of controlling rice pests, diseases and weeds by releasing ducks in paddy fields was investigated. The results showed that populations of planthopper and leafhopper were decreased by 63.8% and 77.3%, respectively in 12d and 42d after releasing ducks, and the weeds were decreased by 50.6% and 94.2%, respectively in 10d and 40d after releasing ducks when compared with the check plot with no ducks. The sheath blight index in active tillering stage and heading stage in the duck growing rice plots were 67.1% and 52.5% less than those in the check, respectively. The population of spiders in the duck released field was increased by 1.66-2.61 times than that in the conventional rice field.
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    Cited: Baidu(56)
    RESULT OF CONTROLLING SHEATH BLIGHT OF RICE WITH ANTAGONISTIC BACTERIA (BACILLUS SUBTILIS 916) UNDER FIELD CONDITIONS
    CHEN Zhi-yi1;GAO Tai-dong2;YIAN Da-fu3;NI Shou-kun4;LU Fan1;SHI A-bao1
      
    Abstract382)      PDF (210KB)(1189)      

    Two isolates i.e. Pseudomonas putida type B1 strain P-91 and Bacillus subtilis strain B-916 were compared with Jinggangmycin in their ability to control rice sheath blight at field plots during 1992-1994. Performance test of B-916 of biocontrol on sheath blight was carried out during 1994-1995 at three sites. Results showed that ferment product of B-916 possessed a good control effect of 50.0%-81.1% against rice sheath blight infection under field conditions.

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    Cited: Baidu(56)
    Influence of Bt Transgenic Cotton on Larval Survival of Common Cutworm Spodoptera litura
    GUO Jian-ying, DONG Liang, WAN Fang-hao
      
    Abstract404)      PDF (174KB)(723)      
    Transgenic Bt cotton line GK12 was used to test the toxicity of Bt cotton leaves, flowers, buds and bolls to the non-target pest, common cutworm Spodoptera litura (Fabricius), with its parental non-Bt cotton line Simian-3 as control. Survival rates on 2nd, 4th, 6th and 10th day of the newly-hatched larvae were measured when they were fed with above cotton organs of the two cotton lines respectively. Both cotton lines and cotton organs had significant influences on larval survival. But there was no interaction between cotton lines and cotton organs. Larval survival of S. litura didn’t differ significantly within 10d when they fed on newly stretched cotton leaves (1st from the top) of either cotton line. Neither did on leaves in the middle part (3rd and 6th from the top) or on cotton buds of tested cotton lines. Feeding on matured cotton leaves (14th from the top) of GK12, larval survival was significantly lower than control from 4d to 10d. Feeding on cotton flowers, larval survival only differed within 4d between the two cotton lines. Larvae fed on cotton bolls had lower survival on GK12 than on its relative control, but the difference was not significant. Based on the comparison of toxicity of GK12 to S. litura and cotton bollworm Helicoverpa armigera, the possible cause of the increasing damage of S. litura in the Bt cotton fields was discussed.
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    Cited: Baidu(55)