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    Infection and Application of Beauveria spp.
    JI Xiang-yun;YANG Chang-ju
    Abstract557)      PDF (173KB)(3461)      
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    The Status and Future Directions of Bioherbicide Study and Development
    CHEN Shiguo, QIANG Sheng
    journal1    2015, 31 (5): 770-779.   DOI: 10.16409/j.cnki.2095-039x.2015.05.017
    Abstract316)      PDF (437KB)(2607)      
    With enhancing of people's consciousness on health and environment as well as organic agriculture development, the “green” bioherbicide has being given more and more attention. Over twenty bioherbicide products have be registered or commercialized in worldwide, even some of them became successfully the international productions. However, the consumer market of these bioherbicides is still small due to the product self weakness. Here, this review covers the development necessity and urgency, classification, the global current status and future directions of bioherbicide. In addition, we mainly focus on that the practicability, achievements and the future prospects of the natural products-based bioherbicides. It is proposed that the structural diversity and different action target of natural products offer great opportunities for the exploiture of both directly used natural compounds as bioherbicide and synthetic herbicides with new target sites based on the structures of natural products.
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    Cited: Baidu(11)
    Review on Research and Development of Botanical Pesticides
    ZHANG Xing, MA Zhiqing, FENG Juntao, WU Hua, HAN Lirong
    journal1    2015, 31 (5): 685-698.   DOI: 10.16409/j.cnki.2095-039x.2015.05.009
    Abstract510)      PDF (599KB)(2511)      
    Botanical pesticides have aroused the researchers' great interest all over the world. The article will give a concise elucidation to botanical pesticides from several aspects including the research history, current situation, industrialization efforts, application technique emphasis, special activities, biosynthesis technique, environment pattern and its mechanism, the effects of comprehensive use the residues from botanical pesticides and “pesticides-fertilizer unification” to novel plant protection theory and practice. The article present the problems appeared in fields of R & D, application, marketing promotion and management concerning botanical pesticides, and give the relevant countermeasures. And also, the article discussed the development trend and emphasis of botanical pesticides.
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    Cited: Baidu(29)
    Analysis of the Development Situation and Trends of Biological Pesticides in China
    QIU Dewen
    journal1    2015, 31 (5): 679-684.   DOI: 10.16409/j.cnki.2095-039x.2015.05.008
    Abstract412)      PDF (428KB)(2281)      
    This paper summarized the status and characteristics of biological pesticide industry, and analyzed the basis of biological pesticide industry development and industrial development situation; summarized the current situation of biological pesticides and related policies to guide the development of China; analyzed the competitiveness of China's bio-pesticide industry structural features and the evolution of industry trends, explored the bottleneck problem of bio-pesticide industry and the corresponding solutions; for the current development trends of biological pesticide industry, analyzed the domestic bio-pesticides, bio-pesticides market prospects and biological pesticide industry would become the rapid development of new sources of growth.
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    Cited: Baidu(15)
    Statue and Analysis of Overseas Natural Enemies Merchandise
    XU Xue-nong, WANG En-dong
    Abstract595)      PDF (183KB)(2132)      
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    Cited: Baidu(23)
    Mass-Rearing and Bionomics of Campoletis chlorideae
    LIU Wan-xue;WAN Fang-hao;YUAN Shi-tao
    Abstract482)      PDF (177KB)(2065)      
    Mass-rearing and bionomics of Campoletis chlorideae were studied under laboratory conditions at 26±1℃ and 65±5% RH. The results indicated that among the five tested heliopteran species, i.e., Helicoverpa armigera, H. assulta, Spodoptera litura, S. exigua and Mythimna separata, S. litura was the most feasible host for the rearing of C. chlorideae. When S. litura larvae at different developmental stages (2-6d old) were used as the host of C. chlorideae, the developmental period of the wasp did not differ significantly. With the increase of the host's age, the parasitizing ratio of the wasp decreased, the weight of the cocoon increased, whereas the emerging ratio of the adults did not differ (around 90%). Four-day-old host could produce the largest number of cocoon (55.3%). The longevity of the adult wasp developed from 3-5-day-old S. litura larvae was the longest among the treatments. Under 26℃, the averaged number of eggs per wasp was 92.7 and most wasps emerged in the daytime. Under temperature range of 4-26℃ and supplied with 10% honey solution, the average longevity of adult wasp increased with the decrease of temperature.
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    SEM Observation of the Sensilla of Aleiodes esenbeckii
    WANG Yi-ping 1;WU Zhi-yi 2;CHEN Xue-xin 3;WU Hong 1
    Abstract350)      PDF (1266KB)(2006)      
    Aleiodes esenbeckii (Hartig) is a dominant natural enemy parasiting on Dendrolimus spp. in forests. Scanning electron microscopy was used to observe the morphology and ultrastructure of sensilla on antenna, maxillary palpus, tibia of fore leg and ovipositor of A. esenbeckii. Gnerally, A. esenbeckii have 5 types of sensilla, namely, sensillum placodeum, sensillum trichoideum, sensillum chaeticum, sensillum campaniformium and sensillum basiconicum. The adaptive implications of the morphology and distribution of these sensillum of A. esenbeckii are discussed.
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    Cited: Baidu(2)
    Progress in Biocontrol Research with Trichoderma
    GUO Run-fang; LIU Xiao-guang; GAO Ke-xiang; GAO Bao-jia; SHI Bao-sheng; ZHEN Zhi-xian
    Abstract411)      PDF (260KB)(1815)      
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    Cited: Baidu(108)
    Progress on Mechanism and Applications of Trichoderma as a Biocontrol Microbe
    CHEN Jie, ZHU Jie-wei, ZHANG Ting, WANG Bing-li
    Abstract576)      PDF (196KB)(1737)      
    Trichoderma is widely used as a biocontrol microbe against plant diseases in the world, which is mainly applied for controlling a variety of soil borne plant diseases and some plant aboveground diseases. With the advent of MAMPs (microbe-associated molecular patterns) theory,the study on mechanism of plant disease control and improved plant resistance to stress factors with Trichoderma as a biocontrol agent has come into a new stage, especially as the development of technologies based on systems biology, it has become possible to understand the nature of interaction of plant- Trichoderma-pathogen from point of "omics" view, which therefore would intensively enrich the theory basis of Trichoderma as biocontrol agent. Meanwhile, a diversified technical system for applying Trichoderma products developed in national agricultural industry would provide great promotion to sustainable development of agriculture in the future. This review will focus on new research progress on biocontrol mechanism with Trichoderma against plant diseases at molecular level.
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    GUO Jian-hua;SUN Ping-hua;WU Yun-bo;FANG Zhong-da
    Abstract344)      PDF (151KB)(1728)      
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    Cited: Baidu(32)
    Biological Control of Striped Flea Beetle ,Phyllotreta striolata Fabricius
    WANG Guo-hong;HAN Ri-chou
    Abstract599)      PDF (141KB)(1659)      
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    Cited: Baidu(6)
    Process Development and Future for Entomopathogenic Fungus Beauveria bassiana Production

    LIU Jian;CHEN Hong-zhang;LI Zuo-hu

    Abstract345)      PDF (197KB)(1642)      
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    New Concept of Biological Control: Bio-control Plants Used for Management of Arthropod Pests
    XIAO Yingfang 1,2, MAO Runqian 3, WAN Fanghao 4
    Abstract249)      PDF (421KB)(1636)      
    The modern organic agriculture has increasingly become a hot topic worldwide. In general, organic agriculture is complied with organic standards set by national governments and international organizations. The rule does not involve modern synthetic inputs such as synthetic pesticides and chemical fertilizers. With the growing emphasis on the environment and the food safety, the discovery and development of effective biological control approaches, especially in botanically based techniques, such as botanically derived pesticides to manage arthropod pest populations is facing a new challenge. This review is intended to discuss bio-control plants and provide insights of these plants used for potential biological control of arthropod pests in the field of crop protection. As all known, all crops or plants are always attacked by their enemies, i.e. arthropod pests. In most cases, the plant species or diversities within crop ecosystem provide an excellent opportunities for manage pests in organic agricultural production. Under certain circumstances, these crops or plants can rely on their own defense strategies, such as plant physiological and biochemical merits, against arthropod pest population. These plant defense strategies are playing key role in regulation of arthropod pest populations. Therefore, the botanically based techniques are particularly useful in pest management of the organic agriculture. Based on the studies, a new concept, bio-control plants (BCP), or bio-control plant agent, was emerging. The bio-control plants are defined as these plant species that could be used as biological control agents direct or indirectly to eliminate or manage the targeted arthropod pests, these bio-control plants include host-resistant plants, insecticidal plants, repellent plants, flowering plants, insectary plants (for natural enemies) and so on. The bio-control plants, in general, consist of three types of plant species based on plant characteristic and functional response to arthropod pest attacks. 1) The crops or plants that have specific chemical or physical characteristic which could be used to reduce, repel or kill pests, such as naturally- resistant crops, or botanical based host-resistant transgenic plants, and insecticidal plants; 2) The crops or plants that could deliver specific nutrients to natural enemies for development and reproduction, e. g, specific insectary plants, banker plants, and specific flowering plants; 3) The crops or plants that could provide shelter or reproduction habitats, such field-side plants (weeds). Generally speaking, the bio-control plants have several advantages: First, as naturally or botanically based techniques, the bio-control plant agents provide new option approach for managing important arthropod pests. The plant-based agents introduced to the crop ecosystem would make growers implement easily, overall significantly reduce pesticides or other chemical inputs in the modern organ agriculture; these environmental friendly approaches would increase crop yields and increasingly assure food safety. Secondly, the bio-control plants may highly effective support natural enemy without risks, e.g., the banker plants or specific flowering plants. Overall vegetation diversity within the crop ecosystem may in part offer wider range of nectar (carbohydrate) and pollen (protein) resources from flowering plants for beneficial against arthropods during growing season. Thirdly, the bio-control plants could be compatible with other biologically control methods. Without doubt, the bio-control plants put emphasis on substantial natural suppression mechanism of targeted pests either throughout natural enemies or plant self function within a crop system. This exploitation of the bio-control plants should be bright and great benefit to producer and customers in future.
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    Mass-rearing of Sclerodermus guani (Hymenoptera: Bethylidae) with Substitute Host
    YAO Wan-jun 1;YANG Zhong-qi 2
    Abstract455)      PDF (1060KB)(1629)      
    It was carried out to select proper substitute hosts for mass rearing Sclerodermus guani (Hymenoptera: Bethylidae), an effective parasitoid for biological control of longhorned beetles in China by present experiment. The result showed that male pupae of Apis mellifera ligusteca Spinola (Hymenoptera: Apidae), was successful and that the adult wasps reared with it had high parasitic ability and vigor, and 32 individuals of the wasp adults could be on average reared out by one individual of the substitute host. The lifespan of the female wasps reared was about 29 d, the male 5.5 d at 26℃ respectively, and more than 65.45% female parasitoids could live over a mouth. Five to eight generations of the parasitoid could be reared out in a year with the substitute host. The comparison indicated that the parasitic wasp reared by the substitute host was about the same in body size, viability and parasitic ability with ones reared by the larvae of its original host, Saperda populnea L. (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae). Meanwhile, the cost of the mass rearing by using the substitute was 7.44% of that by using larvae of S. populnea. Thus, it is recommended that the male pupa of Italian honey bee could be a good substitute host for mass rearing the parasitoid to meet the need of the biological control of many longhorned beetles.
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    Cited: Baidu(10)
    Biology and Host Specificity of Puccinia spegazzinii, a Potential BiocontrolAgent for Mikania micrantha
    FU Wei-dong, YANG Ming-li, DING Jian-qing
    Abstract367)      PDF (118KB)(1599)      
    Biology and specificity of Puccinia spegazznii, a potential biocontrol agent of invasive weed, Mikania micrantha, were investigated under quarantine greenhouse in China. As an obligate parasite with short-cycled autoecious, it completed life cycle on Mikania mictantha by teliospores and basidiospores. It infected leaves, petioles and other vegetative organs of the host plant infected parts became chlorosis after inoculation for 4-5 d. Twelve to fifteen days later, yellow telia appeared from back of infected leaves. The infected leaves died and/or defoliated. Teliospore was yellow to brown color without dormancy. 72 species of plant, belonging to 29 families, 62 genera, were tested for infection. They were divided into 12 groups in the testing program. M. micrantha was used as CK plant in each group. Three replicates were settled. Inoculation method of the pathogen was in line with the sequence and regulation of the Centre for Agriculture and Bioscience International. Result showed that chlorosis spot appeared on Asparagus cochinchinensis, Eupatorium adenophorum, Elephantopus scaber and Helianthus annuus. However, no mycelium and hostorium were found. It is recognized that the fungus infected Mikania micrantha and M. cordata in China.
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    Quorum Quenching, a New Strategy for Controlling Plant Bacterial Diseases
    ZHANG Li-qun 1;TIAN Tao 2;MEI Gui-ying 1
    Abstract852)      PDF (214KB)(1594)      
    Quorum sensing (QS) enables bacteria to monitor their own population density by means of small, diffusible signals and to coordinate the expression of specialized genes with cell density. Many phytopathogenic bacteria employ the QS system to regulate the expression of their virulent factors. This makes QS a very attractive target for the development of novel disease-suppressive strategies. The ability to disrupt QS is known as quorum quenching. This review provides an overview on the relationship between QS and pathogenicity of phytopathogenic bacteria, and on the progress of the development of the quorum-quenching strategy in plant diseases control during the last decade.
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    Cited: Baidu(14)
    HE Li-yuan
    Abstract552)      PDF (297KB)(1559)      
    Some newer achievements and advances concerning research and application of Agrobacterium radiobacter K 84, fluorescent pseudomonads, Bacillus spp., Erwinia herbicola, phytopathogenic bacteria, and induced resistance in biological control for plant diseases were briefly reviewed and discussed. Some suggestions or considerations were proposed as well.
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    Cited: Baidu(41)
    Selection of Endophytic Antifungal Bacteria from Capsicum

    HE Hong;CAI Xue-qing;HONG Yong-cong;GUAN Xiong;HU Fang-ping

    Abstract390)      PDF (106KB)(1558)      
    The endophytic antifungal bacteria were isolated and screened from Capsicum frutescens. Results indicated that population of endophytic bacteria ranged from 2.83×10 3 to 13.46×10 3 cfu per gram of fresh weight although it might vary depending on variety, tissue and planting location of the plant. Population of the endophytic bacteria were biggest in leaf, secondly in root, thirdly in stem and smallest in fruit. Leaf taken from capsicum planted in irrigated field harbored a bigger population of endophytic bacteria than that from non irrigated field. But for the endophytic bacteria in root, stem and fruit, plants growing non-irrigated field harbored more than that frowing in irrigated field. Of the 108 strains isolated, 28.7% expressed antagonism against growth of Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cubense and Fusarium oxysporum f. sp.  cucumerinum. Two of them (BS-2 and BS-1) were found not only to be inhibitive to the growth of some fungal pathogens, but also have 57.34%-94.08% control effect to the anthracnose caused by Colletotrichum gloeosporioides. These two strains were identified as Bacillus subtilis.
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    Cited: Baidu(90)
    Advances in Biological Control of Citrus Psyllid Diaphorina citri, a Vector Insect of Citrus Huanglongbing Disease
    DAI Xiaoyan, REN Suli, ZHOU Yating, REN Shunxiang, QIU Baoli
    Abstract189)      PDF (368KB)(1549)      
    The citrus psyllid, Diaphorina citri Kuwayama, is the primary vector of citrus Huanglongbing disease, Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus, which has the huge potential threats to the development of citrus industry inChina . Based on the comprehensive understanding of D. citri control technologies, we reviewed the latest advances in biological control of D. citri and forecasted its future prospects. The main biological control resources of citrus psyllid currently are natural enemy insects and entomopathogenic fungi, among which predatory ladybeetles, lacewings, spiders and hover flies are the dominant species of predator, while Tamarixia radiata and Diaphorencyrtus aligarhensis are the two dominant parasitoids inChina . Several representative entomopathogenic fungi include Lecanicillium lecanii, Isaria fumosorosea, Beauveria bassiana and Hirsutella citriformis have been reported with high virulence to citrus psyllid. This current review is expected to provide technical support and theoretical reference for efficient and sustainable control of citrus psyllid in the future.
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