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    Effects and Colonization of Beauveria bassiana in Maize under Stress of Exserohilum turcicum Infection
    SUI Li, LU Yang, CHI Ruikai, ZHAO Yu, ZHANG Zhengkun, LI Qiyun
    Chinese Journal of Biological Control    2023, 39 (4): 804-812.   DOI: 10.16409/j.cnki.2095-039x.2022.05.008
    Abstract260)      PDF(pc) (1371KB)(717)       Save
    This study aims to clarify the colonization ability of Beauveria bassiana in maize plants and its influence on disease resistance of host plants. B. bassiana-maize symbiosis was constructed by root drenching method and chlorophyll and nitrogen content, as well as plant height were measured to evaluate the growth promoting effect of B. bassiana colonization in maize. The resistance of B. bassiana colonization against Exserohilum turcicum infection was investigated by inoculation of the disease. The colonization and spread of B. bassiana endophytic in maize plants under E. turcicum infection stress was studied by colony counting and quantitative PCR. The results showed that the colonization of B. bassiana in maize reached 68.18%, positively promoted plant growth and significantly reduced the incidence of B. bassiana by 46.67% at 21 day after inoculation. B. bassiana could be 'recruited' from the rhizosphere soil when maize leaves were infected by E. turcicum, and B. bassiana could accumulate at leaves in turn to improve resistance against plant pathogen infection. This study has further clarified the biocontrol potential of entomogenous fungi against plant diseases as endophyte, and provides a theoretical basis for the study of colonization and induced resistance of entomogenous fungi in plant tissues.
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    Mechanism of Chaetomium globosum in Promoting Growth and Preventing Disease and Advance of Its Application and Research
    FENG Chaohong, LI Lijuan, ZHANG Jiaojiao, WANG Junmei, SONG Yuli, LI Haohai, XU Fei
    Chinese Journal of Biological Control    2023, 39 (4): 961-969.   DOI: 10.16409/j.cnki.2095-039x.2023.02.043
    Abstract239)      PDF(pc) (432KB)(908)       Save
    Chaetomium globosum, one of common plant endophytic fungi, possesses potential biocontrol function against many plant diseases. This paper summarized the research advances of Chaetomium globosum on biocontrol effect, and its biocontrol mechanisms, which include antibiosis, growth-promoting effect, induction of plant resistance, niche and nutrient competition, and hyperparasitism. Chaetomium globosum exhibits great application potential on plant disease control and growth promotion, soil improvement, and straw degradation. Advances on the fermentation technology and genetic engineering were also illuminated. This study will provide theoretical references for the application research of Chaetomium globosum as biocontrol agent.
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    Review and Prospects on Microbiological Pesticides Used on Grain Crops in China
    ZHUO Fuyan, ZHANG Hongjun, LIU Wancai, ZHANG Jie
    Chinese Journal of Biological Control    2023, 39 (4): 747-751.   DOI: 10.16409/j.cnki.2095-039x.2023.09.001
    Abstract199)      PDF(pc) (334KB)(381)       Save
    Microbial pesticides are an important way to promote the green control of crop pests and diseases, and also an effective way to ensure increase production and reduction loss of grain crops. Based on the application acreage of microbial pesticides on grain crops, this paper reviewed the achievements of microbial pesticide application since 2018 in view of crops types and application regions. This paper also discussed and sorted out the existing problems with microbial pesticide application, and proposed the corresponding promotion ideas. The review serves to provide reference for the development of microbiological pesticide.
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    Comparison of Anesthesia Methods in RNAi Microinjection of Brown Planthopper
    ZHANG Pengwen, DUAN Zhirou, LIU Changquan, PENG Yinchuan, ZHANG Wanna, XIAO Haijun, ZHANG Jing
    Chinese Journal of Biological Control    2023, 39 (5): 1148-1155.   DOI: 10.16409/j.cnki.2095-039x.2022.05.009
    Abstract159)      PDF(pc) (630KB)(458)       Save
    Microinjection is an effective and accurate quantitative method to inhibit gene expression, which has a wide range of applications in insect gene function research and pest control. Usually, the tested insects are small and vigorous, and they need to be anesthetized before injection for immobilization. After the anesthesia effect is relieved, further phenotypic determination experiments can be performed. Different anesthesia methods have different effects on the anesthesia effect, physiology, and behavior of insects. Therefore, the determination of insect anesthesia methods is of great significance to reduce errors in microinjection dsRNA interference experiments. In this study, the brown planthopper was used as the experimental subject, and the anesthetic effects of different proportions of ether and ethyl acetate mixed liquid anesthetics and low temperature anesthesia on the brown planthopper were compared, and the effects on the survival rate of brown planthopper were further determined. The results showed that the recovery time of brown planthopper was prolonged with the increase of the concentration of ethyl acetate in anesthetic treatment. The effects of different anesthesia methods on the survival rate of brown planthopper in the RNAi microinjection experiment ranked from high to low were ether:ethyl acetate (1:2), ether:ethyl acetate (1:1), ether, ether:ethyl acetate (2:1), ether:ethyl acetate (3:1), 20 min on ice, and 40 min on ice. The comprehensive evaluation showed that the mixture of ether:ethyl acetate (1:2) could be used as the optimal anesthesia treatment for the RNAi microinjection experiment of brown planthopper.
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    Development of Wettable Powder of Bacillus velezensis SH-1471 and Its Control Effect on Tomato Fusarium Wilt
    SHEN Yunxin, LI Minggang, SHI Zhufeng, ZHAO Jiangyuan, WANG Nan, LI Zhefen, YANG Mingying, CHEN Qibin, YANG Peiwen
    Chinese Journal of Biological Control    2023, 39 (4): 904-914.   DOI: 10.16409/j.cnki.2095-039x.2023.02.040
    Abstract149)      PDF(pc) (461KB)(398)       Save
    Bacillus velezensis has great potential in the development of microbial pesticides. The research and development of its wettable powder and the optimization of its production process are one of the measures to promote its industrialization and commercialization. In addition, it is of great significance to promote the green development of agriculture and realize green prevention and control. B.velezensis SH-1471 was used as the research object. Single factor test was used to select the carrier and additive that had the least effect on its activity and its compound proportion. The control effect of B.Velesiensis SH-1471 WP on tomato Fusarium wilt was determined in a pot experiment. The formulation and ratio of B.velezensis SH-1471 WP were established as follows:kaolin as carrier parent powder 87%, sodium lignosulfonate 2%, NNO 8%, xanthan gum 2%, ascorbic acid (VC) 1%; The viable count of the preparation was 2.5×1010 CFU/g, fineness 97%, wetting time 12 s, suspension rate 88.6%, drying reduction 1%, pH 7.1, and impurity rate 0. All the indicators were in line with the national standards. The continuous storage experiments showed that the survival rate of spores reached 87.65% at 4℃ for 180 d and 82.45% at 25℃. Laboratory experiments showed that it had a good control effect and could significantly reduce the incidence of tomato Fusarium wilt, with a control effect of 93.7%. B.Velesiensis SH-1471 WP has the characteristics of good stability and high control efficiency, and has a good application prospect in the biological control of crop diseases.
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    Intraspecific Host Discrimination and Superparasitism in Telenomus remus (Nixon), an Egg Parasitoid of Spodoptera frugiperda (J. E. Smith)

    XUE Taoran, PAN Jing, LIU Lihong, XU Teng, HUANG Jian, HE Yuxian, WANG Zhuhong
    Chinese Journal of Biological Control    2024, 40 (1): 1-.   DOI: 10.16409/j.cnki.2095-039x.2023.01.026
    Abstract141)      PDF(pc) (471KB)(508)       Save

    Telenomus remus (Nixon) is an important egg parasitoid of Spodoptera frugiperda (J. E. Smith), a major invasive pest. In order to clarify the intraspecific host discrimination and the superparasitism of T. remus, the self-recognition (same individual) and conspecific-recognition (different individual) ability to recognize the hosts eggs parasitized at different time intervals were determined, and the superparasitism rate of single and multi-female T. remus under different host density were also investigated. The results showed no superparasitism in T. remus , either self-recognition or conspecific-recognition. After a single female T. remus parasitizing for 24 h at different parasitoid-egg ratios, the percentage of 1st instar larvae of T. remus in S. frugiperda eggs was less than 100%, and only one was found in each host egg. With multi-female T. remus and sufficient hosts, and when parasitoid-egg ratios were 1:100, 2:200, 4:400, 6:600 and 8:800, the percentage of unparasitized host eggs were 52.8%, 67.2%, 63.2%, 53.6% and 51.2%, respectively, and the percentage of host eggs with one 1st instar larva were 47.2%, 32.8%, 36.8%,46.4% and 48.8%, respectively. With multi-female T. remus and insufficient hosts, and when parasitoid-egg ratios were 2:20, 3:21, 4:20, 7:21 and 20:20, the parasitism rates of T. remus were 60.0%, 83.0%, 95.0%, 94.0% and 96.0%, respectively, and the superparasitism rates were 11.0%, 38.0%, 64.0%, 73.0% and 92.0%, respectively, the average number of 1st instar larva of T. remus in a single host egg were 0.4, 0.6, 1.1, 1.3 and 2.1, respectively, and the maximum number were 3.0, 4.0, 5.0, 6.0 and 12.0, respectively. The results show that T. remus has the ability of self and conspecific-recognition, the superparasitism of a single female T. remus does not depend on host density. When the host is sufficient, the superparasitism of multi-female T. remus does not occur, but when the host is insufficient, the parasitism and superparasitism rate, the average and maximum number of 1st instar larvae in a single host egg increase with the increase of parasitoid-egg ratios. The parasitoid-egg ratio of 4:20 is suitable for propagation of the wasp because it produces high parasitism rate, low superparasitism rate, and low internal competition.

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    A New Parasitic Wasp Closterocerus chamaeleon Founding in China Parasitizing Eucalyptus Leaf Gall Maker Ophelimus maskelli (Hymenoptera:Eulophidae)
    LIU Huihui, CAO Liangming, WANG Xiaoyi, LI Enjie, WU Yaojun, JIANG Xuejian, LUO Ji, YANG Zhongqi
    Chinese Journal of Biological Control    2023, 39 (4): 995-1000.   DOI: 10.16409/j.cnki.2095-039x.2023.01.020
    Abstract140)      PDF(pc) (1136KB)(503)       Save
    A serious invasive pest, Ophelimus maskelli (Ashmead) (Hymenoptera:Eulophidae), occurred in China in recent years. The pest forms many small galls on the leaves of Eucalyptus trees and caused defoliation. For biological control of the pest, investigation of its natural enemy was carried out. An effective parasitoid species, Closterocerus chamaeleon (Girault) (Hymenoptera:Eulophidae), was discovered by rearing the Eucalyptus leaves with galls. It is the first record of the parasitoid in China and thus was morphologically described in detail in the present paper with color photos provided. Meanwhile, the diagnostic characters that distinguish the new parasitoid from other close species in the genus were provided. The parasitoid species originally distributes in Australia and now has invaded into many countries in the world where the trees are cultivated, where the parasitoid is a superior natural enemy for the gall maker pest. Therefore, the parasitoid species could play an important role in managing the pest in China.
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    Antifungal Mechanism Analysis and Verification of Bacillus velezensis Ba-0321 Based on Whole Genome Sequencing
    LI Xiaojie, QIU Rui, LIU Chang, YAO Chenxiao, BAI Jingke, CHEN Yuguo, LI Shujun
    Chinese Journal of Biological Control    2023, 39 (4): 885-894.   DOI: 10.16409/j.cnki.2095-039x.2023.02.035
    Abstract135)      PDF(pc) (2615KB)(556)       Save
    Bacillus velezensis Ba-0321, isolated from the rhizosphere soil of healthy tobacco plants, is a plant growth promoting rhizobacteria with strong antifungal activity. It has a good potential in biocontrol application. In the study, the inhibitory effects of strain Ba-0321 sterile filtrate on Fusarium oxysporum and Phytophthora nicotianae were determined by methods of co-culture. The whole genome of strain Ba-0321 was sequenced using the second-generation Illumina and the third-generation Nanopore platform, then analyzed for genome assembly, gene functional annotation, prediction of secondary metabolite synthetic gene clusters. The results showed that the sterile filtrate of strain Ba-0321 has inhibitory effects on both F. oxysporum and P. nicotianae. The culture medium containing 10% sterile filtrate has a higher inhibitory rate on the mycelial growth of the two pathogens, reaching 57.38% and 34.30%, respectively. The results of whole genome sequencing showed that the genome size of strain Ba-0321 was 4099109 bp, including 3897 coding genes, and the sequencing data are available in the GenBank database (accession No. CP101904). There were a large number of genes encoding enzymes, terpene, polyketone metabolic pathways, and genes involved in defense mechanisms have been annotated in the GO, COG and KEGG databases. Using anti-SMASH software, 13 secondary metabolite synthesis gene clusters were predicted encoding antibacterial substances such as Surfactin、Fengycin、difficidin、Bacillaene、Bacillibactin、Macrolactin H、Bacilysin. The existence of biosynthetic gene cluster for antibacterial substances and defence machainsm related genes in Ba-0321 strain genome were verified by PCR amplification and sequencing. The enzyme activity test results showed that the strain has resistant enzyme activities such as protease, chitinase, and cellulase.. This study provides a basis for analyzing the antimicrobial mechanism of strain Ba-0321 and mining antifungal related gene resources at the genomic level, which is of a great significance for research and application of the Ba-0321 strain in future.
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    Control of Ostrinia furnacalis Differed between Field Release Methods of Trichogramma dendrolimi
    DU Wenmei, PANG Jiayao, WANG Lin, ZHANG Junjie, RUAN Changchun
    Chinese Journal of Biological Control    2023, 39 (6): 1275-1281.   DOI: 10.16409/j.cnki.2095-039x.2023.01.044
    Abstract125)      PDF(pc) (1101KB)(245)       Save
    To improve the control of Ostrinia furnacalis showing new situation of occurrence and damage in Jilin Province, we conducted tests for optimal field release methods for Trichogramma dendrolimi from 2018 to 2020. The field tests showed significant differences in the control afforded by the Trichogramma released by different methods. Either increasing the number or the amount of Trichogramma release improved the control efficiency. When T. dendrolimi was used continuously to control the first and second generations of O. furnacalis, the control efficiency reached the highest of 79.32%. It is recommended that for control of the first generation of O. furnacalis, 15000 T. dendrolimi wasps be released in three times at quota of 3000, 7000, and 5000 wasps, respectively, at 2 release points each time per 667 m2. For the second generation of O. furnacalis, 10000 T. dendrolimi wasps are released once at 2 release points per 667 m2. In our practice, T. dendrolimi was released by plant protection UAV in an area of 1334 hm2 for control of O. furnacalis, the control efficiency reached 76.36%―81.23%.
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    Effects of high temperature on the progeny development and Wolbachia infection of Sclerodermus sichuanensis (Hymenoptera:Bethylidae)
    TANG Yanlong, KANG Kui, CHEN Siqi, WANG Lina, CHE Huatao, WANG Xiaoyi, WEI Ke
    Chinese Journal of Biological Control    2023, 39 (4): 752-759.   DOI: 10.16409/j.cnki.2095-039x.2022.07.003
    Abstract124)      PDF(pc) (421KB)(296)       Save
    Temperature is a most important factor affecting insect development and the activity of insect symbiotic microbial. In order to explore the effects of high temperature on the reproduction, developmental traits, and Wolbachia infection of the parasitic wasp, Sclerodermus sichuanensis, the parasitoids reared under three temperatures (27, 30, and 33℃) for four consecutive generations were observed for the parasitism ability and pre-oviposition period of female, progeny developmental duration, offspring number, and male proportion. Meanwhile, the Wolbachia infection of the female parasitoids was detected using the specific primers of the outer surface protein gene (wsp). The results showed that high temperature had no significant effect on the females' parasitism ability, but significantly influenced on their pro-oviposition period and progeny development. With the increase of temperature, the pre-oviposition period of females was prolonged, but the durations of immature stage were significantly shortened. The duration of egg stage was 4.33, 3.27, and 3.36 d; duration of larval stage was 6.77, 5.85, 5.07 d; duration of pupal stage was 13.85, 12.35, 10.96 d in the three temperature treatments, respectively. The durations of parasitoid immature stage at 33℃ were shortened by approximately 5 d in comparison to parasitoids rearing at 27℃. There were no significant differences in the offspring numbers at different temperatures, but the male numbers and proportions exhibited significant increase with the increasing temperatures. Male numbers and proportions of parasitoids reared at 33℃ were approximately three times larger than those at 27℃. Additionally, all the parasitoid individuals were infected by Wolbachia after four generations of breeding at 27℃; however, Wolbachia infection rate of female parasitoids decreased to 6.67% at 33℃. There is a significant negative correlation between temperature and Wolbachia infection rate. Our findings indicate that high temperature shortens the developmental durations of the parasitoids, but also results in the reproductive fitness loss attributed to the significantly increased of male proportions. Our results also confirm that the activity of Wolbachia is inhibited at high temperature, and thus accordingly increases the proportion of the male offspring. The temperature of artificial mass-rearing of the parasitoid, S. sichuanensis, should not exceed 30℃.
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    Optimization of Fermentation Medium for Spore Production by Bacillus velezensis YC11 through Response-Surface Methodology
    LIU Fang, LI Yanyan, CHEN Wei, CAO Chunxia, WEN Shaohua, RAO Ben, HUANG Daye
    Chinese Journal of Biological Control    2023, 39 (4): 915-923.   DOI: 10.16409/j.cnki.2095-039x.2023.02.039
    Abstract119)      PDF(pc) (2354KB)(378)       Save
    The study aimed to increase the spore production by Bacillus velezensis strain YC11 which showed good control effects on black shank of tobacco. Three media components, including corn flour, yeast powder and magnesium sulphate, which significantly influenced the spore production by YC11, were screened out through Plackett-Burman design. A nonlinear equation was fit by the interaction between the most significant factors and the spore production through the steepest ascend experiment and Box-Behnken design. An optimized medium was obtained for the spore production, of which the composition was as the followings:corn flour 13.74 g/L, fish meal 15.00 g/L, yeast powder 15.73 g/L, corn steep liquor 5.00 g/L, magnesium sulphate 0.59 g/L, and potassium dihydrophosphate 0.30g/L. The theoretical spore production of this nonlinear model was 1.144×1010 spores/mL, which was very close to the practical spore production with the optimized medium in shake-flask fermentation. After optimization, the spore production was increased by 64.7%. The spore production of strain YC11 with the optimized medium in 500L fermenter reached 1.50×1010 spores/mL.The results of indoor pot experiment showed that the average control effect of fermentation broth of strain YC11 on tobacco black shank could reach 100%.
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    Identification of Parasitic Wasp Species of Nipaecoccus vastator (Maskell)
    DONG Zhigang, HE Yanhuai, LUO Ye, HUANG Jian, WANG Zhuhong
    Chinese Journal of Biological Control    2023, 39 (5): 1001-1014.   DOI: 10.16409/j.cnki.2095-039x.2023.01.024
    Abstract118)      PDF(pc) (3486KB)(215)       Save
    Nipaecoccus vastator (Maskell) [=Nipaecoccus viridis (Newstead)] is an important pest infesting citrus and other fruit trees and ornamental garden plants. This study investigated the parasitic wasp resources of N. vastator in Fujian, China. The parasitic wasp species of the mealybug in the world were reorganized to include the primary parasitoids with 8 genera and 25 species of Encyrtidae, the first hyperparasitoids with 4 genera and 13 species of Encyrtidae and 1 genus and 1 species of Aphelinidae, and the second hyperparasitoids with 1 genus and 1 species of both Eulophidae and Signiphoridae. Moreover, the parasitic wasp population and the food chain relationship between the parasitoids and the mealybug were analyzed, and the first and the second hyperparasitoids were identified for the first time. At the same time, the known 8 species of parasitoids associated with N. vastator from China were clarified, a key to these parasitoid species was provided, and the morphological characteristics of the main parasitoid species were described with photos, including 1 newly recorded species for China, Anagyrus mirzai Agarwal et Alam.
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    Effect of the Global Regulator MtrAsbh on the Biosynthesis of Milbemycins
    ZHU Yajie, WANG Jiabin, LI Shanshan, XIANG Wensheng, ZHANG Yanyan
    Chinese Journal of Biological Control    2023, 39 (5): 1083-1093.   DOI: 10.16409/j.cnki.2095-039x.2022.03.030
    Abstract117)      PDF(pc) (694KB)(422)       Save
    MtrA is a global response regulatory protein that is highly conserved in Streptomyces. The function of MtrA from Streptomyces bingchenggensis (MtrAsbh) in the biosynthesis of biopesticide milbemycins was studied by by gene deletion, complementation, overexpression, transcriptional analysis and gel retardation assay. Results showed that the mtrAsbh deletion mutant displayed a complete loss of milbemycin production, while overexpression of mtrAsbh significantly promoted the production of milbemycin, indicating that MtrAsbh is a key activator of milbemycin biosynthesis. Our results further show that MtrAsbh regulates milbemycin production by affecting the expression of milbemycin biosynthetic gene clusters and genes related to precursor supply. In addition, MtrAsbhcan act as an activator or a repressor to differentially control the expression of many other natural product biosynthesis genes presented in the genome of Streptomyces bingchenggensis.
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    Bioinformatic Analysis of Insect Kr-h1 Gene
    WANG Huan, CHEN Yumin, LI Kai, ZHANG Weiwei, DENG Jianling
    Chinese Journal of Biological Control    2023, 39 (4): 985-994.   DOI: 10.16409/j.cnki.2095-039x.2023.00.000
    Abstract116)      PDF(pc) (6355KB)(418)       Save
    Kr-h1 (Krüppel homolog 1) is a key molecular target in the regulation of insect metamorphosis and development, and in biological pest control. In this study, insect Kr-h1 gene structure, conserved domain, secondary and tertiary structure, multiple sequences alignment and expression pattern are analyzed, as well as phylogenetic trees are reconstrued. Results indicating that, exon number of Kr-h1 gene containing two exons in most insects, is conserved, while intron in Kr-h1 gene is various in length. Most insects Kr-h1 proteins contain zinc finger structures, which provide the stability of Kr-h1 protein from secondary and tertiary structure evidence. Phylogenetic trees indicate that insect Kr-h1 genes are orthologous among insect species, and genetic relationship of protein fits insect species evolution. However, different motifs of zinc finger structures showed diversities based on phylogenetic tree. Transcription of Pieris rapae data showed close relationship of expression pattern and metamorphosis. Our results enrich knowledge of insect kr-h1gene, providing a new strategy for metamorphosis, development and biological control of P. rapae and Frankliniella occidentalisa.
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    Biocontrol Efficiency and Mechanism of Bacillus tequilensis KXF 6501 against Grey Mold in Postharvest Kiwifruit
    LI Raoyong, DONG Kuikui, YANG Kuo, SHI Xiumei, WANG Meilin, DENG Jia, WANG Fang
    Chinese Journal of Biological Control    2023, 39 (4): 933-941.   DOI: 10.16409/j.cnki.2095-039x.2023.02.042
    Abstract106)      PDF(pc) (2123KB)(281)       Save
    Kiwifruit gray mold disease caused by Botrytis cinerea is one of the main postharvest diseases. In order to better control postharvest gray mold in kiwifruit, this study used Bacillus tequilensis KXF 6501 isolated from healthy strawberry fruit surfaces as the test strain, its antagonistic effect against gray mold on plate and kiwifruit fruits was investigated, then its effect on kiwifruit fruits resistance substances, resistance defense enzyme activities and fruit quality were studied. The results showed that the 24 h- and 96 h-fermentation broths of KXF 6501 inhibited gray mold by 75.96% and 73.72%, respectively, at the 5th day on plate, and the fruit incidence of gray mold disease on kiwifruit was 65.00% and 70.00%, respectively, at the 4th day of storage, which significantly lower than the control fruits. The lesion diameters on the kiwifruit at 11d were 2.78 and 4.25 cm, respectively, which were smaller than those of the control fruits. The 24 h fermentation broth showed a better control effect. Compared with the control, 24 h-fermentation broth of KXF 6501 induced a faster increase of resistance substance content and enzyme activity in kiwifruit. The content of total phenols, flavonoids, and anthocyanins reached their peak at 7 d, which were 1.96, 4.07, and 5.29 times higher than those of the control group, respectively. The peak PAL, GLU and CHI enzyme activities were 95.04, 240.19 and 8.41 U/g, respectively, which were 2.40, 2.03 and 1.15 times higher than those of the control group, and the PPO enzyme activity was significantly higher than that of the control group at 28 d, which was 116.58 U/g, 3.35 times higher than that of the control group. In addition, 24 h-fermentation broth of KXF 6501 treatment reduced fruit soluble solids content and weight loss, maintained the nutritional quality of kiwifruit fruits. The study showed that Bacillus tequilensis KXF 6501 had a good inhibitory effect on the kiwifruit gray mold pathogen, reduced the incidence of the disease, and could increase the content and activities of disease resistance-related substances and enzymes in kiwifruit fruits, then induced the systemic resistance in kiwifruit fruits.
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    Rhizosphere Colonization of Plant Growth Promoting Rhizobacteria HQ1-2 and Regulation Effects of Soil Microecology and Control Effects on the Fusarium Wilt
    CHEN Mengduo, HU Chunyan, MA Xiaojing, HE Menghan, SHEN Husheng, WANG Yiru, PIAO Fengzhi, SHEN Shunshan
    Chinese Journal of Biological Control    2023, 39 (4): 924-932.   DOI: 10.16409/j.cnki.2095-039x.2023.02.034
    Abstract105)      PDF(pc) (694KB)(212)       Save
    In order to study the colonization ability of rhizobacteria HQ1-2 and effects its on rhizosphere microecology and Fusarium wilt of cucumber, Its colonization density of HQ1-2 were detected by dilution plating, the antifungal activity of HQ1-2 against Fusarium oxysporum were detected by in vitro experiments, the control effect of HQ1-2 against Fusarium wilt of cucumber and on rhizosphere soil microecology by pot experiments. The results showed that, HQ1-2 could colonize stable in cucumber roots and rhizosphere soil, 12 days after treatment, HQ1-2 could maintain a density of 104 and 106cfu/g, respectively in cucumber root and its rhizosphere soil. The treatment with HQ1-2 increse the bacteria and actinomycetes, while decresing the fungi quantity in the rhizosphere soil, remarkably improve urease, phosphatase, sucrase and catalase activities in cucumber rhizosphere soil, increase the available NPK contents. HQ1-2 was able to inhibit the mycelia growth, conidia formation and conidia germination of Fusarium oxysporum significantly in the in vitro experiment, HQ1-2 performed the successful potential control against Fusarium wilt of cucumber in the pot experiment, the control efficiencies was 84.62%. Based on the morphological,physiological characteristics and 16S rRNA sequence analysis,the strain HQ1-2 was identified as Paenibacillus polymyxa.
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    Identification of Streptomyces and Its Metabolites Antagonizing Fusarium oxysporum and Phytophthora parasitica in Tobacco Based on Non-Target Metabolomics
    LIU He, SHAN Yuhang, QIU Rui, LI Shujun, ZHANG Chong, WU Yuanhua, AN Mengnan
    Chinese Journal of Biological Control    2023, 39 (4): 875-884.   DOI: 10.16409/j.cnki.2095-039x.2023.02.036
    Abstract105)      PDF(pc) (2897KB)(345)       Save
    To develop effective biocontrol products against two soil-borne diseases, root rot (Fusarium oxysporum) and black shank (Phytophthora parasitica), a Streptomyces strain with good control effect was screened by our laboratory from tobacco rhizosphere soil. It was identified as Streptomyces diastatochromogenes by morphological, physiological, biochemical characteristics and molecular biological analysis. The main active metabolite of the biocontrol Streptomyces was identified as anisomycin by LC/MS non-target metabolomics analysis. The product was verified and content determined by high performance liquid chromatography, and it was found that anisamycin contained 423.98 µg per gram of crude extract. The inhibition results on mycelial morphology and mycelial growth showed that anisomycin could cause the mycelia of F. oxysporum and P. parasitica to expand and distort. The EC50 values for F. oxysporum and P. parasitica were 1556.36 mg/mL and 40.74 mg/mL, respectively. This study provides a new source of biocontrol agents for tobacco root rot and black shank diseases, and provided valuable insights into the further use of anisomycin.
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    Control Effect of Trichogramma chilonis carrying Beauveria bassiana on Soybean Podborer
    ZHAO Yu, LIU Jia, LU Yang, SUI Li, XU Wenjing, DU Qian, LI Qiyun, ZHANG Zhengkun
    Chinese Journal of Biological Control    2023, 39 (4): 760-766.   DOI: 10.16409/j.cnki.2095-039x.2023.01.008
    Abstract104)      PDF(pc) (596KB)(244)       Save
    Soybean moth is an important pest causing huge economic loss in the main soybean producing areas in China. Beauveria bassiana and Trichogramma are the two important biological control agents against soybean moth. However, how to combine the two agents to realize sustainable control of soybean moth is not addressed. Herein, three B. bassiana strains with high virulence against the pest were isolated, identified and screened from the diseased soybean moth larvae. The median lethal time (LT50) of the strains to the mature larvae of the pest were 6.21 days, 6.39 days and 6.87 days, respectively. The B. bassiana conidia and their highly adsorptive adjunct, 0.1% (w/v) starch solution, showed no effect on the emergence and parasitism of pest eggs of T. chilonis. With the adjunct, T. chilonis was able to carry fungal conidia of 3.56×104 per wasp. The two-year field experiments showed that, compared with Trichogramma alone, the pest control effect of Trichogramma carrying B. bassiana was increased by 11.80% and 8.31%, respectively, to 70.44% and 64.75%, respectively, thereby improving the pest control efficiency and realizing synergy without increasing the control cost.
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    Factors Affecting Mating in Chelonus formosanus Sonan
    WANG Luchao, LIN Zhufeng, JIA Jingjing, YU Zirong, JI Xuncong
    Chinese Journal of Biological Control    2023, 39 (4): 774-781.   DOI: 10.16409/j.cnki.2095-039x.2022.11.024
    Abstract103)      PDF(pc) (389KB)(159)       Save
    Chelonus formosanus Sonan is a dominant parasitoid of many lepidopteran pests and has great potential for utilization in the biological control of pests. The effects of different factors (temperatures, nutrition, sex ratios, dating time, and space size) on mating of C. formosanus were tested so as to improve efficiency of mass-rearing by increasing the female rate. The results showed that the mating rate increased gradually with the increase in temperature. The highest mating rate of 45.0% was achieved at 32℃. The mating rate was not significantly affected by nutrition. When the sex ratio was 1♀:1♂, the mating rate was the lowest, only 7.5%; the highest mating rate was 80.0% when the ratio was 1♀:7♂. The mating rate increased with the extension of dating time. The highest rate of 75.0% was obtained with the dating time of 5 days. As the volume of the space gradually increased from 348 cm3 to 1920 cm3, the mating rate decreased gradually, and the lowest was 5.0%. The optimal combination of factors was established and the highest mating rate of 97.5% was observed.
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    Tropism Behavior Analysis of Two Drosophila Species to Fruits and Volatiles of Strawberry at Different Mature Stages
    ZHANG Xuan, BI Yaluan, FANG Qi, WANG Fang, YE Gongyin
    Chinese Journal of Biological Control    2023, 39 (4): 813-823.   DOI: 10.16409/j.cnki.2095-039x.2022.11.016
    Abstract103)      PDF(pc) (1201KB)(373)       Save
    Drosophila melanogaster and D. suzukii attack a variety of economic soft fruits including strawberries Fragaria×ananassa, resulting in huge economic loss. The orientation behaviors of the two Drosophila species to fruits and volatiles of strawberries at different mature stages were analyzed in the present study to screen valuable compounds for the development of fruit fly attractant. Two-choice trap-based bioassays showed that strawberries at all the three mature stages were significantly more attractive to female adults of the two Drosophila species than agar gel. The preference of D. melanogaster and D. suzukii to strawberries at different mature stages ranked from high to low was overripe fruits, red-ripe fruits and white-ripe fruits, but no significant difference was found in the attractiveness between red-ripe fruits and white-ripe fruits. The volatiles from strawberries at different mature stages were collected and analyzed by HS-SPME and GC-MS. It was found that the volatile components from strawberries at red-ripe stage and overripe stage were significantly different. Among the 5 compounds tested, only ethyl acetate had significant attractiveness to the two species of Drosophila females, with effective concentrations ranging from 0.005%-0.05% (v/v).
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