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    Determination of Larval Instars and Duration of the Tomato Leaf miner, Tuta absoluta (Meyrick) (Lepidoptera:Gelechiidae)
    ZHANG Guifen, YIN Huijun, WANG Yusheng, LI Zhenjiang, BI Siyan, WANG Rui, LIU Wanxue, WAN Fanghao
    Chinese Journal of Biological Control    2023, 39 (2): 340-345.   DOI: 10.16409/j.cnki.2095-039x.2022.03.024
    Abstract297)      PDF(pc) (383KB)(439)       Save
    The tomato leafminer Tuta absoluta (Meyrick), originated in Peru, South America, is a worldwide destructive pest of tomato. In China, T. absoluta was first detected in Xinjiang in 2017 and has posed a potential threat to China’s tomato and other grain and vegetable solanaceous crops. Division of larval instars of the leafminer is important for studies of biological characteristics, population dynamics, and population monitoring and prediction and control, such as biocontrol based on larval parasitoids. The head capsule width is an important index for larval instar division. The number of larval instars was determined and tested according to the frequency distribution analysis, Dyar’s rule, Crosby’s growth rule, as well as regressive analysis based on two measured parameters, the head capsule width and body length. The head capsule width of the leafminer larvae fitted well with the Dyar’s rule and Crosby’s growth rule. There was an obvious exponential regression relationship between the number of larval instars and the head capsule width, showing that the head capsule width can be used as an important index for larval instar division. The larvae of T. absoluta can be divided into four instars. The values of the head capsule width of the 1st, 2nd, 3rd, and 4th instar larvae were 0.1375―0.1575 mm, 0.2125―0.2725 mm, 0.3200―0.4100 mm, and 0.4975―0.5800 mm, respectively. The values of body length corresponding to the above four larval instars were 0.80―1.52 mm, 0.91―3.33 mm, 2.42―4.89 mm, and 4.18―7.32 mm, respectively, which could be used as an auxiliary index to determine the number of larval instars of the tomato leafminer. At 27℃, the larvae completed development in 13 d, the 1st, 2nd, 3rd, and 4th larval instars lasted 1―4 d, 3―6 d, 4―7 d, and 6―15 d, respectively. Thus, the T. absoluta larvae are divided into four instars according to the head capsule width, while the body length can be used as an auxiliary index in larval instar division duo to its great variation in the same and between instars.
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    Potential and Prospect of Beauveria bassiana and Metarhizium anisopliae as Biological Pesticides for the Control of Red Fire Ants
    NONG Xiangqun, WANG Guangjun, WANG Yiyan, ZHANG LEI, GAO Qionghua, YU Yonghao
    Chinese Journal of Biological Control    2023, 39 (2): 453-461.   DOI: 10.16409/j.cnki.2095-039x.2023.01.004
    Abstract268)      PDF(pc) (519KB)(264)       Save
    The red fire ant Solenopsis invicta Buren has invaded from South America into many countries in North America, Asia and the Pacific islands. In China, the ant has spread to more than 500 cities and counties of 12 provinces, seriously damaging agricultural and forestry production, ecological balance and human settlement safety. In order to achieve sustainable management of red fire ants, it is necessary to introduce and strengthen the role of biological control. Here we summarized the overall situation of development of entomopathogenic fungi Beauveria and Metarhizium as biological pesticides, as well the detailed progress of the development directing at red fire ants, including highly virulent strains, large-scale production, product formulations and registration, and the application in the field. Meanwhile, we analyzed the advantage and problems of the two fungi for control of red fire ants. The prospect outlook of fungal insecticides in the control of red fire ants was discussed.
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    Population Fitness of the Hoverfly, Episyrphus balteatus (De Geer) (Diptera:Syrphidae) Fed on Different Aphid Species
    JIANG Shanshan, LI Hui, HE Limei, WU Kongming
    Chinese Journal of Biological Control    2023, 39 (2): 254-263.   DOI: 10.16409/j.cnki.2095-039x.2022.03.012
    Abstract262)      PDF(pc) (485KB)(851)       Save
    Episyrphus balteatus (De Geer) is one of the most common predatory natural enemies in agricultural ecosystems. It has dual ecological service functions of pollination and biological control and plays an important role in improving crop yield and protecting biodiversity. However, the proper aphid species for artificial rearing of the predator is still unclear. Our study on the relationship between three aphid species, Aphis craccivora Koch, Myzus persicae Sulzer, and Megoura japonica Matsumura and fitness of E. balteatus showed that the developmental durations of larva (5.9 d) and pupa (6.0 d) with M. japonica were significantly shorter than those with the other preys, and the larval survival rate (80.0%) was the largest; the highest pupation rate (88.4%) and pupal emergence rate (100.0%) were attained with the prey A. craccivora, the lowest pupation rate (47.6%) and pupal emergence rate (49.6%) were recorded with M. persicae; With A. craccivora, M. persicae and M. japonica, the average generation period (T) of the predator was 30.26 d, 32.41 d and 32.34 d, respectively; the intrinsic rate of increases (r) was 0.1581, 0.0953 and 0.1424, respectively; and the finite rate of increase (λ) was 1.1713, 1.1002 and 1.1531, respectively. Flight ability tests showed that prey species had a significant effect on the flight velocity of adults, the highest velocity (0.29 m/s) was recorded with the prey M. japonica, in contrast to the lowest velocity (0.23 m/s) with M. persicae. This study indicates that M. japonica is a suitable aphid species for artificial rearing of E. balteatus, which is of theoretical and practical significance for large-scale rearing and utilization of the biocontrol and pollination ecological service functions of E. balteatus.
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    Reproductive Phenotype of Two Wolbachia-infected Thelytokous Line of Trichogramma dendrolimi Matsumura
    Lü Lin, LI Yuanyuan, HUO Liangxiao, LIANG Hongyu, ZHANG Huanhuan, ZHOU Jincheng, ZHANG Lisheng, DONG Hui
    Chinese Journal of Biological Control    2023, 39 (2): 245-253.   DOI: 10.16409/j.cnki.2095-039x.2022.03.031
    Abstract236)      PDF(pc) (1064KB)(451)       Save
    The effects of temperature, genetic background, and age on the reproductive phenotype and Wolbachia titer of Wolbachia-infected thelytokous line of Trichogramma dendrolimi Matsumura were investigated by analyzing the parameters of reproductive phenotype (male proportion and intersex proportion), fitness (numbers of parasitized host eggs and emergence proportion), and Wolbachia titer as influenced by temperature (22 ℃ and 29 ℃), female age, and genetic background (ZW line and XF line). The results showed that the male proportion and intersex proportion at 29 ℃ were significantly higher than those at 22 ℃. However, the Wolbachia titer and the number of daily parasitized host eggs deposited by maternal females at 29 ℃ were significantly lower than those at 22 ℃. The male proportion of ZW line was significantly higher than that of XF line, but the number of daily parasitized host eggs of ZW line was significantly lower than that of XF line. The male proportion and intersex proportion of offspring increased significantly with the age of maternal females, but the number of daily parasitized host eggs and emergence proportion of offspring decreased significantly with the age of maternal females. The results highlight the significant effects of temperature and age on the reproductive phenotype of Wolbachia-infected thelytokous line of Trichogramma dendrolimi Matsumura with different genetic background. The research is expected to help the improvement of the mass-rearing procedure and field application of thelytokous Trichogramma in biological control programs.
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    Effects and Colonization of Beauveria bassiana in Maize under Stress of Exserohilum turcicum Infection
    SUI Li, LU Yang, CHI Ruikai, ZHAO Yu, ZHANG Zhengkun, LI Qiyun
    Chinese Journal of Biological Control    2023, 39 (4): 804-812.   DOI: 10.16409/j.cnki.2095-039x.2022.05.008
    Abstract235)      PDF(pc) (1371KB)(568)       Save
    This study aims to clarify the colonization ability of Beauveria bassiana in maize plants and its influence on disease resistance of host plants. B. bassiana-maize symbiosis was constructed by root drenching method and chlorophyll and nitrogen content, as well as plant height were measured to evaluate the growth promoting effect of B. bassiana colonization in maize. The resistance of B. bassiana colonization against Exserohilum turcicum infection was investigated by inoculation of the disease. The colonization and spread of B. bassiana endophytic in maize plants under E. turcicum infection stress was studied by colony counting and quantitative PCR. The results showed that the colonization of B. bassiana in maize reached 68.18%, positively promoted plant growth and significantly reduced the incidence of B. bassiana by 46.67% at 21 day after inoculation. B. bassiana could be 'recruited' from the rhizosphere soil when maize leaves were infected by E. turcicum, and B. bassiana could accumulate at leaves in turn to improve resistance against plant pathogen infection. This study has further clarified the biocontrol potential of entomogenous fungi against plant diseases as endophyte, and provides a theoretical basis for the study of colonization and induced resistance of entomogenous fungi in plant tissues.
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    Control Effects of Orius sauteri on Frankliniella occidentalis in Pepper and Eggplant Flowers in Greenhouses
    WANG Jie, ZHANG Chen, ZHU Zhengyang, LIU Junxiu, WANG Su, XU Qingxuan, DI Ning
    Chinese Journal of Biological Control    2023, 39 (2): 264-270.   DOI: 10.16409/j.cnki.2095-039x.2022.03.018
    Abstract223)      PDF(pc) (456KB)(603)       Save
    The beneficial/pest ratio is an important parameter in the application of biological control agents in fields. The control effect and the best predator/pest ratio of Orius sauteri (Poppius) (Hemiptera: Anthocoridae) against Frankliniella occidentalis (Pergande) (Thysanoptera: Thripidae) in the flowers of solanaceous crops were investigated through recording the colony dynamics of F. occidentalis after releasing O. sauteri under 5 different predator/pest ratios in commercial greenhouses of pepper and eggplant. The control of F. occidentalis in the flowers of pepper and eggplants was compared at greenhouse conditions between releasing O. sauteri and applying bio-pesticides. Results showed that the density of the 2nd instar nymphs of F. occidentalis in pepper and eggplant flowers significantly decreased at 48 h after the release of the 5th instar nymphs of O. sauteri, compared with the control without releasing predators. When the predator/pest ratio was 5:30, i.e., five predators were released when there were thirty thrips, the densities of F. occidentalis in pepper and eggplant flowers were the lowest, 0.67 and 1.17 thrips per flower, respectively, and the control efficiencies were 97.67% and 95.93%, respectively. In addition, when the predator/pest ratio was between 1: 30 and 5: 30, there was a positive correlation between the ratio and the control effect in greenhouse. In the long term, compared with the spraying of bio-pesticides, O. sauteri had a better, lasting control effect on thrips in the flowers of pepper and eggplant under commercial greenhouses. The research indicates that O. sauteri has the potential to effectively control F. occidentalis in pepper and eggplant greenhouse and has determined the optimal predator/pest ratio for releasing O. sauteri. The results are helpful for controlling thrips in crop flowers and the large-scale field application of O. sauteri in greenhouse.
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    Combined Use of Beauveria bassiana and Food Lure for Control of the Western Flower Thrip<
    LIU Sheng, LIU Zhao, WANG Shuaiyu, ZHANG Qikai, LEI Zhongren, WANG Haihong
    Chinese Journal of Biological Control    2023, 39 (2): 297-304.   DOI: 10.16409/j.cnki.2095-039x.2022.03.017
    Abstract222)      PDF(pc) (431KB)(422)    PDF(mobile) (431KB)(13)    Save
    To develop a control technology for the western flower thrip by the combined application of Beauveria bassiana and food lures, we evaluated the effects of food lure on the germination rate of B. bassiana conidia. In the greenhouse, the effect of distance between food lure and fungi inoculation device on the germination of B. bassiana conidia, the lures’ capacity to capture thrips and the infection of thrips outside the device were examined. The results showed that with increasing distance between the conidia and the food lure, the germination rate increased significantly. There was no significant difference in conidia germination rate when the food lure was 20 cm away from the conidia in comparison with the control. In the greenhouse, when the lure was placed in the device, the germination rate of conidia was 23.4%, significantly lower than the control (56.3%) and those when the lure was placed at a distance of 0 cm (42.9%), 10 cm (43.9%) and 20 cm (46.5%) from the device, respectively. When the lure was placed in a distance of 0 cm from the inoculation device, the thrip capture was the highest; and when lure was placed into device, the thrip capture was the lowest. When the lure was placed at a distance of 10 cm from the inoculation device, the number of conidia carried by thrips on plants around the device was the highest, significantly higher than other treatments. Meanwhile, the number of conidia carried by the thrips onto plants around the devices increased with time. The combined application of B. bassiana and food lures can establish an “attract-infect-transmit” system, which helps the development of new management technology for the western flower thrip.
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    Predation Effect of Sycanus croceovittatus on the 3rd-Instar Larvae of Spodoptera exigua
    CHEN Suyi, ZHAO Ping, SHI Anxian, SHI Aimin, WANG Chunya, CAI Wanzhi, LI Hu
    Chinese Journal of Biological Control    2023, 39 (2): 289-296.   DOI: 10.16409/j.cnki.2095-039x.2023.03.001
    Abstract217)      PDF(pc) (638KB)(230)       Save
    Sycanus croceovittatus (Hemiptera: Heteraptera: Reduviidae),a widely distributed predatory natural enemy in the southern provinces of China, is a potential biological control agent for lepidopteran, coleopteran and hemipteran pests. In order to evaluate the potential of Sy. croceovittatus to control Spodoptera exigua (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae), the 3rd–5th-instar nymphs and adults of Sy. croceovittatus were tested in laboratory condition for their predation functional responses and searching effects on the 3rd-instar larvae of Sp. exigua at different densities, as well as for the effect of conspecific density interference. The results showed that the predation amount of Sy. croceovittatus increased significantly with the increase of prey density, and the 5th-instar nymphs had the highest predation on the 3rd-instar larvae of Sp. exigua. The predation functional responses of Sy. croceovittatus at different stages fitted well with both Holling Ⅱ and Holling Ⅲ models. In the Holling II model, the 3rd-5th-instar nymphs and female and male adults of Sy. Croceovittatus had the daily maximum consumption of 9.12, 11.42, 22.86, 23.74 and 23.09, and the predation capacity of 12.63, 15.56, 29.04, 24.04 and 16.83, respectively. According to the Holling Ⅲ model, the 3rd-5th-instar nymphs and female and male adults of Sy. croceovittatus had the daily maximum consumption of 8.35, 10.06, 17.54, 16.52 and 14.15, and the optimal searching density of 3.92, 4.46, 7.20, 7.87 and 8.69 per box, respectively. The searching effect was negatively correlated with the pest density, and the conspecific density interference effect was positively correlated with the density of natural enemy. In conclusion, the 5th-instar nymphs had the higher predation ability on the 3rd-instar larvae of Sp. exigua than other developmental stages of Sy. croceovittatus..
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    Predation and Control of Franklinilla intonsa by Neoseiulus bicaudus
    WANG Jiayang, LAN Biyun, FANG Chen, HU Hengxiao, YANG Ruitong, MU Kaiqin, SU Jie, LU Yanhui, ZHANG Jianping
    Chinese Journal of Biological Control    2023, 39 (2): 271-279.   DOI: 10.16409/j.cnki.2095-039x.2022.01.020
    Abstract211)      PDF(pc) (748KB)(465)       Save
    Neoseiulus bicaudus is an important predator in Xinjiang. This study aims to understand the predatory ability of N. bicaudus on Frankliniella intonsa and whether the predation capacity would change with addition of host plant pollen. The predation capacity of different stages of the predator on the pest was measured at different prey densities, and the predatory ability of adult predatory mites on the lst instar nymphs of F. intonsa was also measured with addition of fresh cotton pollen. Furthermore, the field control effect of the predator was determined during cotton flowering stage. The results showed that, the predator’s consumption increased with the increase of the prey density. Female adult predators preferred the 2st instar nymphs over the lst instar nymphs, and the maximum predation rate reached 6.1 nymphs/day. However, when pollen was added, the predator’s consumption decreased with the increase in pollen amount, and was even significantly lower at enough pollen addition than when no pollen was added, and the predatory functional response changed from Holling-II to Holling-III. For controlling F. intonsa in cotton fields, the optimal release ratio of predator to prey was 1:1. In conclusion, N. bicaudus has a good predatory ability on F. intonsa 1st instar and can be used for biological control of F. intonsa.
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    Sequencing and Bioinformatics Analysis of the Whole Genome of Marine Bacillus velezensis Bam-6
    WANG Jinchang
    Chinese Journal of Biological Control    2023, 39 (2): 438-452.   DOI: 10.16409/j.cnki.2095-039x.2023.02.012
    Abstract190)      PDF(pc) (4072KB)(218)       Save
    Bacillus velezensis Bam-6 had strong inhibitory activity against bacterial citrus canker and other plant pathogens and had ability to eliminate peach aphids, in order to explore Bam-6 special functional genes and gene clusters, and further study its antibacterial and insecticidal mechanism, the whole genome sequencing was performed using the BGISEQ II and PacBio III platforms, and the sequencing data were employed for genome assembly, gene prediction and functional annotation, collinearity analysis, secondary metabolite synthesis gene cluster prediction, and comparative genome analysis. The whole genome of Bam-6 is 3,928,774 bp in length with a GC content of 46.53%, potentially producing 3,861 ORFs, and the genome has a total of 86 tRNA, 28 rRNA, 0 sRNA, 122 tandem repeats, and 2 satellite DNA. Up to 3840, 2156, 3485, 3319, or 2721 potential genes were annotated in the NR, Swiss-Prot, eggNOG, Gene Ontology, or Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes databases, respectively. Besides, 12 secondary metabolite gene clusters were predicted, including 3 gene clusters with unknown functions, 8 antibiotic synthesis gene clusters with high similarity (surfactin, macroactin H, fengycin, bacillaene, difficidin, bacillibactin, bacilysin, and mersacidin), and 1 antibiotic gene cluster with only 7% similarity (butirosin A/B). Compared with other B. velezensis strains, Bam-6 has many ORFs with low similarity, 22 specific gene clusters, and 2 unique single-copy genes that encode bacteriocin-like WGxF protein and lactococcin 972, respectively. The present study provides basic data for analyzing the internal factors of the antibacterial and aphid-killing mechanisms of the Bam-6 strain at the genomic level and presents reference information for further understanding the secondary metabolic synthesis pathway of B. velezensis. These results are of great significance for further research on the Bam-6 strain.
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    The First Report of a New Parasitic Wasp Phaedrotoma sp.2 Parasitizing Liriomyza trifolii in Hainan
    XING Binglin, GULINUER·Ahamaijiang, WU Shaoying, PENG Zhengqiang, YANG Lei, LÜ Baoqian
    Chinese Journal of Biological Control    2023, 39 (3): 740-746.   DOI: 10.16409/j.cnki.2095-039x.2022.03.029
    Abstract187)      PDF(pc) (5611KB)(401)       Save
    Liriomyza trifoliata is one of the major invasive pests in China and is mainly distributed in tropical and subtropical areas, causing huge losses. Parasitic wasps, a large group of hymenopteran insects, play an important role in the biological control of pests. Based on this point, a general survey of wasps parasitizing L. trifoliata was carried out in Hainan Province from October to December 2021. A new species that has not been reported in China was identified by morphological identification, which belongs to the genus of Phaedrotoma (Hymenoptera: Braconidae), it was named as Phaedrotoma sp.2. Molecular identification based on the mitochondrial COI gene further confirmed the taxonomic status of the wasp, and the phylogenetic tree showed that it was clustered into the genus of Phaedrotoma. This study lays a foundation for the artificial breeding of L. trifoliata parasitoids in the future and contributes to the application of biological control of agricultural pests.
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    Identification and Mechanism of Strain YB-1503 for Biological Control of Meloidogyne incognita
    FU Yanyan, ZHANG Jie, ZHU Wenqian, XIA Mingcong, SUN Runhong, XU Wen, LANG Jianfeng, PAN Yamei, WU Chao, YANG Lirong, WU Yanbing, LI Dongmei
    Chinese Journal of Biological Control    2023, 39 (2): 429-437.   DOI: 10.16409/j.cnki.2095-039x.2023.02.017
    Abstract181)      PDF(pc) (822KB)(263)       Save
    Root-knot nematode Meloidogyne incognita is a global plant parasitic nematode that can cause poor plant growth and even death in severe cases. In order to excavate biocontrol strains against root-knot nematode with high efficiency, 24 strains of bacteria were isolated from the tomato root infected with root-knot nematode by plate dilution method. To screen high efficiency biocontrol strains, the lethal activity of cultures to second-stage juveniles (J2s) and their control effect in the greenhouse were determined. The results showed that strain YB-1503 had the highest adjusted mortality of J2s, reaching 70.0% at 48 h. Greenhouse experiment demonstrated that treatments with cultures of strain YB-1503 reduced root-knot index by 65.8%, along with increased plant growth. Strain YB-1503 was identified as Bacillus firmus by morphological,physiological and molecular biological methods. In addition, fermentation filtrates of strain YB-1503 could significantly reduce the activities of catalase, carboxylesterase and acetylcholinesterase of J2s. The content of reactive oxygen species (ROS) of J2s was also increased after being treated by fermentation filtrate of strain YB-1503, resulting in the death of nematode. Thus, YB-1503 strain has great potential for further development and utilization.
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    Screening, Identification and Control Efficacy of Biocontrol Strain against Purple Blotch of Garlic
    LI Jiaxuan, MA Jinjun, ZHOU Dongmei, DENG Sheng, FENG Hui, WEI Lihui, WANG Xiaoyu
    Chinese Journal of Biological Control    2023, 39 (2): 389-396.   DOI: 10.16409/j.cnki.2095-039x.2023.02.015
    Abstract179)      PDF(pc) (962KB)(285)       Save
    Purple blotch is one of the common diseases in various garlic-growing areas in Jiangsu, China. It causes huge economic losses and affects the sustainable development of the garlic industry. At present, the prevention of garlic purple blotch is mainly dependent on chemical control, while biological control research is limited. To improve the prevention level of garlic purple blotch, the biocontrol strains with clear antagonistic effect against garlic purple blotch pathogen (Alternaria alternata) were selected, and the control efficacy was evaluated with pot experiment and field trial. Among the 122 bacterial strains isolated from the soil of garlic fields, 61 strains were antagonistic to A. alternata, and the 12 strains with the strongest antagonistic ability were analyzed in more detail. Pot experiment and field trial showed that the JS51 and JS62 had the highest control efficacy against garlic purple blotch, and their control efficacies reached 61.63% and 55.05%, respectively, which was equivalent to that of prochloraz-manganese chloride complex. Based on morphological observations and molecular analyses of 16S rRNA and rpoB gene, JS51 and JS62 strains was identified as Bacillus velezensis. These strains have the potential to be developed into environmentally friendly biological pesticides in the future.
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    Isolation and Identification of Antagonistic Fungus against Albizzia Julibrissin Wilt and Pot Control Experiment
    CAI Yue, TANG Xiaofei, HU Ting, GE Chunmei, RUAN Banfeng
    Chinese Journal of Biological Control    2023, 39 (2): 397-406.   DOI: 10.16409/j.cnki.2095-039x.2023.02.021
    Abstract177)      PDF(pc) (3068KB)(254)       Save
    Albizzia julibrissin wilt is one of the major factors that trigger the weakness and death of A. julibrissin, and there are no efficient approaches for preventing this disease at present. In this study, plate confrontation and toxic medium method have been used to isolate potential antagonists from the rhizosphere soil of A. Julibrissin. The antagonistic fungus was identified based on morphological characteristics and combined ITS-TEF1 phylogenetic analysis, and the pot experiment was conducted to verify the efficacy of the antagonistic strains against A. Julibrissin wilt. The result showed that 11 potential antagonists were collected from rhizosphere soil, and 5-2 has the highest inhibitory effect. After six days of confrontation, the inhibition rate of 5-2 on Fusarium oxysporum and Fusarium solani were 76.88% and 84.08%, respectively, and the two pathogens can hardly grow on the plate containing 6.67% concentration of 5-2 spore suspension (1.0×107 spore/mL). Microscopic observation showed that 5-2 could entangle the mycelium of A. Julibrissin wilt pathogen and parasitic growth. Pot experiment showed that strain 5-2 had good antagonistic effect on F. oxysporum and F. solani with the control efficacies of 78.26% and 57.89%, respectively. Combined with morphological characteristics and ITS-TEF1 phylogenetic analysis, strain 5-2 was identified as Trichoderma koningii. These results indicate that T. koningii (strain no. 5-2) has positive effect on preventing and treating Fusarium wilt, and could be used as a candidate strain for biological control of A. Julibrissin wilt disease.
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    Mrhox3 Effects on Conidiation and Tolerance in Metarhizium robertsii
    ZHANG Nan, WU Hao, TONG Youmin, LI Xiaojuan, HUANG Bo
    Chinese Journal of Biological Control    2023, 39 (3): 523-532.   DOI: 10.16409/j.cnki.2095-039x.2022.03.019
    Abstract177)      PDF(pc) (848KB)(413)       Save
    Metarhizium robertsii, as a model entomopathogenic fungus, has been applied in biocontrol programs of insect pests. Homeobox family genes play an important role in fungal asexual reproduction, however, its functions in entomopathogenic fungi remains unclear. Quantitative real-time PCR showed that homeobox family gene Mrhox3 is highly expressed at the conidiation and conidia stages. Gene knock-out and complementation were conducted to study the function of Mrhox3, and the results indicated that deletion of Mrhox3 did not affect the mutant’s vegetative growth and pathogenicity, but significantly weakened the conidiation ability. Further studies showed that loss of Mrhox3 significantly down-regulated the expression levels of multiple conidiation -related genes, such as the centarl regulators abaA and wetA. Loss of Mrhox3 resulted in promoted conidial germination and significantly enhanced conidial tolerance to UV and heat shock stress. This study provides a foundation for further understanding the mechanism of conidiation and conidia stress resistance in Metarhizium robertsii.
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    Classification and Identification of Streptomyces aureoverticillatus DF06 and Its Effect on Disease Control and Growth Promotion
    SHI Yifei, GENG Peibing, WU Hao, MIAO Jianqiang, HAN Lirong, LIU Xili
    Chinese Journal of Biological Control    2023, 39 (2): 407-417.   DOI: 10.16409/j.cnki.2095-039x.2023.02.011
    Abstract167)      PDF(pc) (1771KB)(215)       Save
    This study aimed to investigate control efficiency and biocontrol mechanism of strain DF06 against Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cucumerinum. DF06 was classified and identified by culture characteristics, physiological and biochemical characteristics and 16S rDNA sequence analysis. The agar plate method was used to determine the antibacterial activity of the strain on the growth of F. oxysporium f. sp. cucumerinum FOC mycelium. The control efficiency of strain DF06 to cucumber disease and its effect on the growth potential and the changes of defense enzymes in cucumber plants were determined by using pot experiments. Real-time quantitative technique was used to determine the resistance-related genes. The results showed that the strain DF06 was identified as Streptomyces aureoverticillatus, which had a strong inhibitory effect on F. oxysporium f. sp. cucumerinum FOC, with the inhibition rate of 80.80% and malformed hyphae. The control efficiency of strain DF06 to cucumber Fusarium wilt was 68.42%, higher than that of the control agent. Different concentrations of DF06 fermentation broth can promote the growth of cucumber seeds and seedlings. The plant height, chlorophyll content and dry weight increased significantly after treatment with 107 CFU/mL of DF06 fermentation broth, reaching to 23.56 cm, 2.16 mg/g and 0.84 g, respectively. At the same time, the bacteria induced the up-regulation of the expression of disease resistance-related genes and improved the activities of related defense enzymes in cucumber plants. The activities of CAT, PAL and POD all increased rapidly within 24 h after treatment. DF06 strain can effectively control F. oxysporium f. sp. cucumerinum FOC by directly inhibiting the mycelium growth and inducing the plant resistance to disease. DF06 strain has the potential to be developed into biocontrol agent for the control of cucumber Fusarium wilt.
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    Predation of Spodoptera frugiperda Larvae by Andalusia spinidens (Fabricius) Nymphs
    WANG Yan, LI Xiangyong, ZHANG Hongmei, ZHAO Xueqing, YIN Yanqiong, LIU Ying, SHEN Aidong, CHEN Bin, CHEN Fushou
    Chinese Journal of Biological Control    2023, 39 (2): 478-486.   DOI: 10.16409/j.cnki.2095-039x.2023.01.005
    Abstract167)      PDF(pc) (465KB)(178)       Save
    The control potential of the new natural enemy Andalusia spinidens to the invasive pest Spodoptera frugiperda was assessed by measuring the predation ability and functional responses of A. spinidens nymphs to S. frugiperda larvae and observing predatory behaviors. The results showed that the 4th and 5th instar nymphs of the predator exhibited strong predatory ability on the 3rd―5th instar larvae of S. frugiperda. Daily predation amount of the 5thinstar nymphs on the 3rd, 4th, and 5th instar larvae was 8.30, 6.33, and 3.80, and the highest predation of 5th instar nymphs on 3rd instar larvae. For the 4th instar nymphs on the 3rd and 4thinstar larvae, it was 4.67 and 2.93, respectively. In contrast, the 3rd instar nymphs had weak predatory ability, only showing relatively strong predation on the 3rd instar larvae, with an average daily predation amount of 3.50. The predation of the nymphs on different instars S. frugiperda increased gradually with the increase of prey density and then stabilized, which fits well with the Holling Ⅱ functional response model. The searching ability, processing time and daily maximum predation of the 5th instar nymphs on S. frugiperda were superior to those of the 3rd instar nymphs, and the control efficiency of the 5th instar nymphs was higher. The results serve as an important reference for using the predatory bugs in control of S. frugiperda.
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    Parasitism Ability and Offspring Development of Sclerodermus alternatusi Yang (Hymenoptera: Bethylidae) in Different Female Oviposition Times
    TANG Yanlong, WANG Lina, CHEN Yan, KANG Kui, ZENG Boping, YANG Zhongqi, WEI Ke
    Chinese Journal of Biological Control    2023, 39 (3): 499-506.   DOI: 10.16409/j.cnki.2095-039x.2022.11.004
    Abstract167)      PDF(pc) (484KB)(324)       Save
    Sclerodermus alternatusi is a synovigenic parasitoid in which oogenesis takes place after the female is stimulated by feeding on a host, and this is a successive process. Generally, one female parasitoid can complete several times of parasitism and thus parasitize more than one hosts in its life span. In order to compare the differences of adult parasitism ability and offspring development of S. alternatusi in different adult oviposition times, the female parasitism rate, successful parasitism rate, progeny developmental duration, brood size, and male proportion were investigated in the laboratory conditions. The results showed that S. alternatusi female could complete four times of parasitization to the host, Thyestilla gebleri larvae. There were 85% of female parasitoids could complete two times of parasitization, but only 31% and 4% of females could complete three or four times of parasitization. The parasitic ability of the female parasitoid gradually decreases with the increase of the oviposition times. The durations of egg stage showed no significant difference in different oviposition times. However, the larval stage and pupal stage of the offspring were significantly different in different oviposition times, which displaying the longest in first oviposition time and the shortest in fourth oviposition time. The numbers of female and male offspring were significantly different among different oviposition times. The female offspring numbers were 40.2 and 35.1 in the first and second oviposition time, respectively. The numbers of male offspring were also less than 10 in these two oviposition times. The numbers of female offspring were sharply declined in the third oviposition time, over 60% of offsprings were males. Moreover, all of the offspring were males in the fourth oviposition time. The mean number of female offspring of a single S. alternatusi adult was approximately 80. This study provides new references for rearing and using the S. alternatusi to control the longhorn beetles.
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    Sequence Structure and Spatiotemporal Expression Analysis of AKT, MAPK and RPS6KB Genes of Insulin Signaling Pathway in Propylea japonica
    CHEN Lulu, HUANGFU Ningbo, ZHAO Likang, ZHANG Kaixin, LI Dongyang, JI Jichao, MA Deying, CUI Jinjie
    Chinese Journal of Biological Control    2023, 39 (2): 280-288.   DOI: 10.16409/j.cnki.2095-039x.2022.11.008
    Abstract162)      PDF(pc) (4153KB)(282)       Save
    To determine the sequence structure and spatiotemporal expression patterns of AKT, MAPK and RPS6KB genes in the insulin signaling pathway of Propylea japonica, the full-length genes of AKT, MAPK and RPS6KB were acquired from P. japonica genome. Protein sequence structure analysis showed that the genes encode 522, 332, and 375 amino acids, respectively. Expression profiles of the genes in different developmental stages (1, 3, 5, 7 days after eclosion) and tissues (head, thorax, abdomen, intestine) of P. japonica female adults were investigated through the method of real-time quantitative PCR. The results showed that AKT, MAPK and RPS6KB were significantly up-regulated in the 7-d old females and reached the highest level. AKT was highly expressed in the head in the 1-d and 3-d old females, and highly expressed in the intestine and thorax in the 5-d and 7-d old females, respectively. The expression level of MAPK gene in the head was significantly higher than that in the thorax, abdomen and intestine in the 1-d, 3-d, 5-d and 7-d old females. Expression level of RPS6KB gene was the highest in abdomen in the1-d, 3-d, 5-d and 7-d old females, and significantly higher than that in head, thorax and intestine. Taken together, the expression levels of AKT, MAPK and RPS6KB genes differ in different developmental stages and tissues of P. japonica, which serves as a foundation for further study on the role of insulin signaling pathway in reproductive development of P. japonica..
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    Trapping Synergism of E8, E10-12:OH with Sex Pheromone of Grapholita molesta (Busck) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae)
    ZHU Mengya, XIANG Huiming, LI Xianwei, WU Dongsheng, WU Hongjian, MA Ruiyan
    Chinese Journal of Biological Control    2023, 39 (3): 560-566.   DOI: 10.16409/j.cnki.2095-039x.2022.03.032
    Abstract161)      PDF(pc) (412KB)(414)       Save
    The aim of this paper was to clarify the synergistic effect of different doses of E8, E10-12:OH that is the main component of sex pheromone of Cydia pomonella on the sex pheromone of Grapholita molesta, and to provide a reference for biological control and monitoring of G. molesta. Field trapping experiments and electroantennogram (EAG) were used to explore the effect of lures, which contained different dosages of E8, E10-12:OH mixing with the sex pheromone of G. molesta, on trapping efficiency of G. molesta in the field and on the EAG responses of male G. molesta. Field experiment showed that all five doses of E8, E10-12:OH used alone had a capability to trap male G. molesta and had no significant difference in trapping number of male G. molesta. Trapping efficiency of five doses of E8, E10-12:OH mixing with G. molesta sex pheromone were higher than it. The number of G. molesta captured by adding 20 μg of E8, E10-12:OH to the sex pheromone of G. molesta was 2.86 times higher than it. Both E8, E10-12:OH and G. molesta sex pheromone could elicit the EAG responses of male G. molesta, of which the intensity was positively related with the concentration of tested compounds. E8, E10-12:OH could be used as attractant or synergist of the sex pheromone of G. molesta to improve its trapping efficiency and enhance the accuracy of monitoring the population dynamics of G. molesta.
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