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    The Development of Biological Pesticides Based on RNA Interference
    GAO Liwen, CHEN Shiguo, ZHANG Yu, QIANG Sheng
    Chinese Journal of Biological Control    2022, 38 (3): 700-715.   DOI: 10.16409/j.cnki.2095-039x.2021.11.015
    Abstract244)      PDF (510KB)(665)      
    RNA interference, also known as post transcriptional gene silencing, is an emerging new genetic engineering technique that can effectively silence or inhibits the expression of target genes. Biopesticides based on RNA interference are considered as a revolutionary technique in the field of plant protection in the future, which will completely change the ideas and strategies of controlling agricultural diseases, insects, weeds and other pests. Here, the basic principle and development process of RNA interference were briefly reviewed. The current status of research and application of RNAi biopesticides was summarized. The opportunities and challenges to develop RNAi biopesticides as well as its development prospect were deeply analyzed. This review serves to provide some valuable references for the development of RNAi biopesticides in China.
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    Progress and Prospect of Microbial Metabolite Pesticides Research, Development and Application in China
    HE Ya-Wen, LI Guangyue, TAN Hong, KANG Qianjin, GE Beibei, ZHAO Yangyang, ZHANG Kecheng, JIANG Xiliang, LIU Fengquan, LI Yaning, ZHANG Hongyan, BAI Lingquan, XIANG Wensheng, QIU Dewen, YANG Ziwen, DENG Zixin
    Chinese Journal of Biological Control    2022, 38 (3): 537-548.   DOI: 10.16409/j.cnki.2095-039x.2022.02.028
    Abstract237)      PDF (1923KB)(511)      
    Microbial metabolite pesticide (MMP) contains the microbial fermentation metabolite as the main active component and is effective in the prevention of both plant disease and weed problems or in the promotion of plant growth and development. MMPs mainly include the agricultural antibiotics, plant immune elicitor and plant growth regulator, they are the most widely used biopesticides in China. MMP has both preventive and therapeutic effects on plant disease, therefore, it is one of the important areas for the future development of green pesticides. In this review we summarize the major MMPs, their characteristics, and latest research and development progress. We then discuss the problems, challenges and prospects of MMP research, development and application in China, and provide a reference for the future research and development of new MMP.
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    Development and Application of Insect Sex Pheromone Technology in China
    LIU Wancai, LIU Zhendong, ZHU Xiaoming, DU Yongjun
    Chinese Journal of Biological Control    2022, 38 (4): 803-811.   DOI: 10.16409/j.cnki.2095-039x.2022.05.010
    Abstract224)      PDF (479KB)(432)      
    Insect sex pheromones are trace and volatile chemicals emitted by pheromone glands during calling after sexual maturation,which attract conspecific individuals to mate and are species specific.It has been widely applied in the monitoring and control of insect pests.In China,a series of great progresses have been made in the industrialization of chemical synthesis and purification,improvement of the techniques for stabilization and controlled release of pheromone compounds,the development of various traps and smart pheromone trapping and forecasting technology,and the practical application of pheromone trapping and mating disruption for various pests in the field,which meets the needs of monitoring and green control of major pests.Here,we comprehensively introduced and summarized the principle,types and application methods of pheromone lures and traps of mass trapping and dispensers of mating disruption developed in China,and their application in the field.The relationship between calling and mating,the attractiveness and specificity of sex pheromone,and the effects of biotic and abiotic factors on pheromone trapping and mating disruption were systematically summarized.The case analysis of application in important pests of vegetables,fruit trees,cotton and other crops was presented in detail.The problems found in the research and development,extension and application of pheromone technology were discussed and analyzed,and countermeasures and suggestions for improving the work were put forward.
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    Synergistic Effect of a Biocontrol Bacterium D25 and Cyprodinil·Fludioxonil on the Control of Tomato Gray Mold
    HUANG Xin, ZHENG Lining, GU Xuehu, XU Xuanwei, ZHANG Hao, WANG Yingchun
    Chinese Journal of Biological Control    2022, 38 (4): 860-867.   DOI: 10.16409/j.cnki.2095-039x.2022.04.018
    Abstract168)      PDF (384KB)(277)      
    In order to screen the fungicide complex composed of biocontrol bacterium D25 and chemical fungicide to improve the biocontrol efficacy on tomato gray mold as well as reducing the dosage of chemical fungicides,toxicity of 12 fungicides against Botrytis cinerea was firstly tested in vitro by toxic medium method Bio-compatibility between fungicides with strong antifungal activity and biocontrol bacterium D25 was determined by plate counting method.O ptimal ratio of fungicides and biocontrol bacteriun D25 was screened by the toxicity ratio,and control efficacy of the complex in suppressing tomato gray mold was further tested in pot experiment.The results showed that among 12 fungicides, Bacillus subtilis and Trichoderma harzianum had the strongest toxicity against B .cinerea,with EC 50 values of 4.564×10 -5 mg/L and 0.021 mg/L,respectively.Cyprodinil·fludioxonil had better toxicity,with EC 50 value of 0.043 mg/L.Two botanical fungicides,carvacrol and matrine·osthol,had the lowest toxicity,with EC 50 values of 12.469 mg/L and 19.220 mg/L,respectively.Biocompatibility test showed that no negative effect was found between cyprodinil·fludioxonil and bio-control bacterium D25.The complex of cyprodinil-fludioxonil (0.043 mg/L) and bio-control bacterium D25(7×10 4CFU/mL) at a volume ratio of 5:5 performed synergistic effect,with the toxicity ratio of 1.3943.In the pot experiment,the control efficacy of the prevention group reached 72.29%,which was higher than that of the individual fungicide by 19.26% and 29.29%,respectively,while the control efficacy of the treatment group reached 61.57%,which was higher than that of the individual fungicide by 15.40% and 21.23%,respectively.In conclusion,combined application of bio-control bacterium D25 and cyprodinil·fludioxonil had a synergistic effect against B.cinerea,which reduced the application amount of cyprodinil·fludioxonil by 50% without reducing the control efficacy on tomato gray mold,and had great potential to be applied in field.
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    Preliminary Study on the List Management of Registered Varieties of Biopesticides in China
    YANG Jun, HOU Yanhua, LIN Ronghua, JIANG Hui, LIU Yinchi, QIU Lihong, LIU Xue
    Chinese Journal of Biological Control    2022, 38 (4): 812-820.   DOI: 10.16409/j.cnki.2095-039x.2022.05.011
    Abstract163)      PDF (455KB)(345)      
    In recent years,new varieties of biopesticides have emerged thick and fast in China,the registration heat of biopesticides has continued to rise,and the registration management of it has been constantly standardized.This paper discusses the list management of registered varieties of biopesticides in China,puts forward the scope and establishment principles of the list,combs and forms the list of registered varieties of biopesticides in China.In addition,this paper puts forward suggestions on improving the list management of registered varieties of biopesticides.
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    Contact Toxicity of Two Essential Oils Extracted from Ajania against Ditylenchus destructor
    XIE Ziyi, LU Peiyu, NING Anqi, LIU Xinying, WANG Junlong, ZHANG Ji, LIANG Junyu
    Chinese Journal of Biological Control    2022, 38 (3): 549-554.   DOI: 10.16409/j.cnki.2095-039x.2021.07.012
    Abstract158)      PDF (393KB)(496)      
    The control effect of the essential oils extracted from Ajania against Ditylenchus destructor was investigated through testing the nematocidal activity of the essential oils of A. nematoloba and A. nitida and their main components against D. destructor. The two essential oils, eucalyptus and verbenenol, and their mixture were applied separately by the drug immersion method to D. destructor. Results showed that the essential oils of A. nematoloba and A. nitida had certain insecticidal activity against D. destructor, with LC 50 of 1.50 mg/mL and 1.23 mg/mL, respectively, at 24 h post treatment, which were significantly lower than that of the positive control carbofuran. At 48 h post treatment, LC 50 of the essential oils were 1.06 mg/mL and 0.70 mg/mL, respectively. At 24 h post treatment, the nematocidal activity of eucalyptus oil (LC 50=0.49 mg/mL) and verbenenol (LC 50=1.09 mg/mL) were stronger than those of the two essential oils. When eucalyptus and verbenenol were mixed at the volume ratios of 2:6, 4:4 and 3:5, the mixtures showed LC 50 values of 0.18, 0.17 and 0.20 mg/mL, respectively, indicating a significant synergistic effect. These results indicate that the essential oils and main components extracted from Ajania are of great potential for the green prevention and control of D. destructor.
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    Application of Digital PCR in the Detection of Genetically Modified Plants
    YOU Yinghua, ZHAO Zhi, LI Yanan, SONG Zhiguo, CHANG Honglei
    Chinese Journal of Biological Control    2022, 38 (5): 1143-1148.   DOI: 10.16409/j.cnki.2095-039x.2022.09.012
    Abstract153)      PDF (619KB)(176)      
    In response to the growing plantation of genetically modified plants,new demands for detecting transgenic components have arisen.Recent years have witnessed a rapid increase in the use of digital PCR to detect transgenic components as a new molecular biology technology.This paper introduces the concept of digital PCR as well as its advantages in the detection of transgenic components.It also summarizes the application of digital PCR in quantitative analysis of transgenic components,preparation of reference materials,and determination of foreign gene copy numbers in genetically modified plants.
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    Synergistic Effect of Zhongshengmycin and Natamycin on Tomato Gray Mold
    JI Lindong, MA Chao, XU Jun, ZHAO Yijun, ZHANG Yanhui, DUAN Xiaoli, YANGYang, CHEN Chang
    Chinese Journal of Biological Control    2022, 38 (4): 874-879.   DOI: 10.16409/j.cnki.2095-039x.2022.04.005
    Abstract142)      PDF (388KB)(274)      
    In order to improve the control effect of existing bio-pesticides on tomato gray mold,the inhibitory activities of mixtures containing Zhongshengmycin and Natamycin on mycelial growth and conidial germination of Botrytis cinerea were investigated,and the synergistic effect and appropriate ratio of the two pesticides were determined.The mixtures of Zhongshengmycin and Natamycin showed synergistic effect on inhibition of hyphae growth when their weight ratios were at 9:1 and 1:1,with the synergistic coefficient of 3.6348 and 1.7145,respectively.Synergistic effect was also expressed in inhibition of the conidial germination when their weight ratios were at 9:1,7:3 and 1:1,with the synergistic coefficient of 1.7268,1.6335 and 1.5336,respectively.Field experiments showed that the 500 x dilution of 3% wettable compound powder of Zhongshengmycin and Natamycin (9:1) performed good effects on tomato gray mold on leaves and fruits,with the control efficacies of 81.04% and 78.48%,respectively,significantly higher than that of individual ingredient.The above results showed that the mixture of Zhongshengmycin and Natamycin in proper proportion could effectively improve the control effect on tomato gray mold.
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    Influence of Plant Growth Regulators on Sporulation and Conidia Characteristics of the Entomopathogenic Fungus Beauveria bassiana
    CAO Weiping, ZHEN Wei, CHEN Dan, FENG Shuo, SONG Jian
    Chinese Journal of Biological Control    2022, 38 (3): 555-564.   DOI: 10.16409/j.cnki.2095-039x.2021.05.022
    Abstract138)      PDF (2853KB)(576)      
    Entomopathogenic fungus Beauveria bassiana plays an important role in biological control of agricultural and forest pests. Fermentation period and sporulation quantity were regarded as the main evaluation indexes of B. bassiana fermentation. Influence of plant growth regulators on the conidial production of B. bassiana strain JG-17 was investigated. The results showed that the conidial production was significantly increased by spraying ethephon solution on the fungal colony at the vegetative growth stage. The sporulation in the fungal colony treated with 100 ng/cm 2 of ethephon on the 8 th day of cultivation was 6.28 times of that in the control. No significant differences were observed in heat resistance, UV resistance and virulence against target pests of the conidia between the ethephon treatment and the control. A reasonable application of ethephon to the culture of B. bassiana can effectively improve the sporulation efficiency of B. bassiana. The results provide a new idea to improve mass production efficiency of fungal pesticides
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    Summary of Research on Insect Chitinase and Its Application
    LI Chunchun, GOU Yuping, ZHANG Kexin, ZHANG Qiangyan, LIU Changzhong
    Chinese Journal of Biological Control    2022, 38 (4): 1020-1029.   DOI: 10.16409/j.cnki.2095-039x.2021.09.023
    Abstract138)      PDF (744KB)(562)      
    Chitin,a nitrogen-containing polysaccharide biological polymer in nature,is the main structural component of insect epidermis,midgut peritrophic membrane and tracheal system,protecting insects from chemical erosion,physical damage,and pathogen invasion.Recently,more and more attention is paid to insect chitinase for its role in pest control,for it could degrade chitin in insect body wall and peritrophic membrane.By regulating chitinase,the growth and development of insects will be affected directly and even be controlled effectively.This paper summarized the structure,gene expression characteristics,physiological functions,and influence factors of insect chitinase,as well as its application and shortcomings in pest control,in order to provide a scientific basis for the further development and application of insect chitinase in the field of plant protection.
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    Control Efficacy of Several Biopesticides on the Main Diseases and Pests of Broad Bean in Qinghai
    ZHANG Leyi, LIU Yu, CHEN Pingqiang, WENG Hua, MA Zhiqing
    Chinese Journal of Biological Control    2022, 38 (6): 1377-1384.   DOI: 10.16409/j.cnki.2095-039x.2022.01.019
    Abstract138)      PDF (396KB)(394)      
    To establish a whole season biological control technology for broad bean diseases and pests to promote the production of organic broad beans in Qinghai, we determined the biological activities of 9 biopesticides on Aphis craccivora Koch (Hemiptera: Aphididae), broad bean chocolate spot and fusarium wilt using laboratory and field tests. The laboratory bioassay tests showed that the four biopesticides had significant activities against A. craccivora. Among them, 0.3% matrine AS was the best, with LC 50 of 24 h and 48 h of 7.33 mg/L and 5.66 mg/L, respectively. The field tests showed that 0.3% matrine AS and 0.5% veratrine soluble concentrate (SL) had significant control on A. craccivora, with the control efficacy of 76.00%-83.00% at 7 d after application of 500-fold dilution. The mixture of 10% berberine wettable powders (WP) and Bacillus subtilis (100 billion spores/g) WP had a synergistic effect on the control efficacy of broad bean chocolate spot, with the control efficacy of 73.98%-77.79% at 14 d after application of the 500.0 g/hm 2preparation. Paenibacillus polymyxa (1 billion CFU/g) WP and Trichoderma harzianum (≥200 million live spores/g) WP were more effective against broad bean fusarium wilt than the other two biopesticides, with the control efficacy of 74.23% and 71.01% at 14 d after application, respectively. Therefore, 0.3% matrine AS, 0.5% veratrine SL, 10% berberine WP, Bacillus subtilis WP, Paenibacillus polymyxa WP and Trichoderma harzianum WP have excellent control on the three main diseases and pests of broad bean. The results are of significance for whole season biological control technology for organic, green and safe production of broad bean in Qinghai province.
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    Effect of Non-Pathogenic Fusarium oxysporum F-1 on Strawberry Gray Mold and Its Preliminary Mechanism Analysis
    XIAO Jiling, XIONG Yi, LIANG Zhihuai, YANG Ke
    Chinese Journal of Biological Control    2022, 38 (4): 840-845.   DOI: 10.16409/j.cnki.2095-039x.2022.04.010
    Abstract133)      PDF (1797KB)(295)      
    Gray mold ( Botrytis cinerea) is the main fungal disease of strawberry both during growth and after harvest,seriously affecting the yield and quality of strawberry.In this study,the control effects of salicylic acid, Trichoderma harziana and Fusarium oxysporum on the disease in fruits were determined.Field tests showed that the non-pathogenic F.oxysporum F-1 suppressed the disease by 70.06%,equal to the efficacy of 1000-times diluted 400g/L pyrimethanil suspension.Preliminary study on the suppression mechanism of F-1 on postharvest gray mold of strawberry showed that F-1 fermentation broth reduced hyphal adhesion of B.cinerea and inhibited germination rate of B.cinerea conidia by 19.8%.The activities of catalase,peroxidase and superoxide dismutase of strawberry could be maximally increased up to 13.6 U/g,158.9 U/g and 269 U/g respectively,after 2 days of inoculation of F-1 conidia and fermentation broth.The results suggest that F.oxysporum F-1 has the potential to be applied of in control of strawberry gray mold disease.
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    Effects of RGDV-Infected Transgenic cry1 Ab Rice on the Populations of Nilaparvata lugens(Stål)
    MIAO Xin, LIU Yuxiao, CHEN Wenle, GUO Qitang, YOU Shijun, LIN Sheng
    Chinese Journal of Biological Control    2022, 38 (5): 1055-1066.   DOI: 10.16409/j.cnki.2095-039x.2022.09.001
    Abstract130)      PDF (839KB)(218)      
    The insect-resistant transgenic cry1 Ab rice MF86 and its parental non-transgenic MH3301 rice were tested for the effects of Rice gall dwarf virus(RGDV)-infection of rice on the population of the non-target pest, Nilaparvata lugens (brown planthopper,BPH) under the climate chamber conditions using age-stage two sex life table.It was found that RGDV had no significant effect on the lifespan of BPH population feeding on MH3301,while increased its fecundity;in contrast,RGDV significantly shortened the life span of BPH population feeding on MF86 and reduced its fecundity.Compared with MH3301,healthy MF86 significantly prolonged the longevity and increased the fecundity of BPH population.However,compared with RGDV-infected MH3301,RGDV-infected MF86 significantly decreased the fecundity of BPH population.RGDV-infected MF86 significantly reduced the intrinsic rate of increase,finite rate of increase rate of BPH population,and significantly shortened the generation time;in comparison,RGDV-infected MH3301 had no significant effects on the dynamic parameters of BPH population.The results show that the RGDV-infected transgenic cry1Ab rice (MF86) harbor significantly negative effects on the population proliferation of BPH.
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    A Preliminary Study on the Effects of Several Frequently Used Chemical Insecticides on the Growth of Diverse Bacillus thuringiensis Strains
    SHU Changlong, ZHANG Xian, WANG Kui, CAO Beibei, ZHANG Jie
    Chinese Journal of Biological Control    2022, 38 (5): 1166-1173.   DOI: 10.16409/j.cnki.2095-039x.2021.09.010
    Abstract125)      PDF (591KB)(541)      
    Bacillus thuringiensis(Bt) can produce a variety of pesticidal active substances and is one of the most widely used microbial insecticides.Recent studies have shown that Bt is of high control of chemical insecticide resistant pests and that combined use of Bt with chemical insecticides can improve the control efficiency and reduce the usage of chemical insecticides.To improve the synergistic pest control between Bt and chemical insecticides,this study investigated the compatibility of different subspecies of Bt strains with frequenctly used chemical insecticides.Pan-genomic analysis showed that Bt strains from different subspecies differed significantly in their genetic composition,suggesting that Bt strains may respond differently to chemical insecticides.Further analysis of the effect of chemical insecticides on Bt proliferation showed that chlorfenapyr inhibited most of the tested Bt strains,indicating that the compatibility between Bt and chemical insecticides needs to be measured when they are used in combination.The Bt insecticide subspecies Bt kurstaki(Btk) and Bt aizawai (Bta) frequently used for the control of lepidopteran pests showed synergistical control with beta-cypermethrin.To Btk strain HD1,chlorantraniliprole and indoxacarb exhibited some inhibitory effect,while chlorfluazuron promoted growth,indicating that HD1 and chlorfluazuron can be used synergistically.For Bta strain G03,indoxacarb had less negative effect,chlorfluazuron was inhibitory,and chlorantraniliprole was promotional,showing that G03 and its derivatives can be used synergistically with chlorantraniliprole and indoxacarb.The results indicate that the sensitivity of Bt to chemical insecticides differ between strains,indicating that combinations between Bt and chemicals with high compatibility can be obtained through screening.Our data also shed light on the further combination of Bt insecticide and chemical insecticide,which is important for the reduction of chemical pesticide application.
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    Predatory Function of Harmonia axyridis and Propylea japonica Larvae to Young Larvae of Tuta absoluta
    YANG Guiqun, FAN Wei, ZHANG Qian, LI Mao, JIANG Zhengxiong, DUAN Pan, HU Changxiong, CHEN Guohua, ZHANG Xiaoming
    Chinese Journal of Biological Control    2022, 38 (4): 959-966.   DOI: 10.16409/j.cnki.2095-039x.2021.09.017
    Abstract121)      PDF (482KB)(546)      
    The control ability of Harmonia axyridis and Propylea japonica on Tuta absoluta was evaluated by investigating the predatory function and searching responses of the 4 th instar larvae H.axyridis and P.japonica to the young larvae of T.absoluta (1 stand 2 nd instars) under laboratory conditions.The results showed that the predatory functional responses of the 4 th instar larvae H.axyridis and P.japonica to the 1 st and 2 nd instar larvae of T.absoluta conformed to HollingⅡ model;the daily predation of the two ladybirds species was positively correlated with the prey density within a certain range,when the T.absoluta density was N→+∞,the maximum daily predation Na maxof H.axyridis and P.axyridis to the 1 st instar T.absoluta larvae were 147.06 and 333.33,respectively,and to the 2 nd instar T.absoluta larvae,140.85 and 149.25,respectively.The highest daily predation rate of H.axyridis reached 98%,significantly higher than that of P.axyridis.The searching efficiency of the two ladybirds species on T.absoluta decreased with the increase of prey density,which was higher in H.axyridis than in P.axyridis.The highest searching efficiency of H.axyridis was >0.90,while that of P.axyridis was<0.80.The predatory ability of H.axyridis to low instar larvae of T.absoluta was slightly stronger than that of P.axyridis,but both the ladybirds species afforded high predation and control of young larvae of T.absoluta.The two ladybirds species can be further studied as important biological control agents for control of T.absoluta.
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    Advances on the Pathogenic Mechanism of Entompathogenic Nematodes
    CHANG Doudou, WANG Congli, LI Chunjie
    Chinese Journal of Biological Control    2022, 38 (5): 1325-1333.   DOI: 10.16409/j.cnki.2095-039x.2021.09.022
    Abstract118)      PDF (470KB)(546)      
    Entomopathogenic nematodes (EPN) are symbiotic with bacteria and play a vital role as biological control agents against pests.The research of pathogenicity of EPN is fundamental for the efficient application of EPN,involving the interaction between nematodes and their symbiotic bacteria on insects.In this paper,we reviewed the pathogenic factors of the EPNs of Steinernema spp.and Heterorhabditis spp.and the interaction mechanism between nematodes and host insects.The review would provide reference for further theoretical research and application of EPN.
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    Identification of Colletotrichum Species Associated with Anthracnose of Camellia oleifera and Screening of Fungicides
    SUN Wei, YUAN Huizhu, CHEN Shuning
    Chinese Journal of Biological Control    2022, 38 (4): 880-889.   DOI: 10.16409/j.cnki.2095-039x.2022.04.017
    Abstract118)      PDF (1375KB)(258)      
    Anthracnose is one of the most common diseases of the tea-oil trees.In this study,isolates of Colletotrichum species were collected from the leaves of the tea-oil tree with anthracnose symptoms from six provinces in China.These isolates were further characterized based on morphology and phylogenetic analysis.All of the isolates were tested for sensitivities to fungicides using the mycelial growth rate method.In total,17 Colletotrichum isolates were isolated from diseased leaves of the tea-oil tree.The isolates were characterized as six species,including Colletotrichum camelllae, Colletotrichum fructicola, Colletotrichum siamense, Colletotrichum gloeosporioides, Colletotrichum kahawae,and Colletotrichum horri,and all belonged to Gloeosporioides complex .The isolates were sensitive to prochloraz,with the minimum mean EC 50value of 0.035 μg/mL,followed by fluazinam,carbendazim,fludioxonil,pyraclostrobin,difenoconazole,epoxiconazole,Benzovindiflupyr and tebuconazole,with the mean EC 50 values of 0.076,0.169,0.202,0.243,0.342,0.490,0.534 and 1.401 μg/mL,separately.In addition,the EC 50 values of tested isolates to azoxystrobin,boscalid,fluopimomide and fluopyram were higher than 100 μg/mL.
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    Antifungal Activity of Plant extracts against Colletotrichum fructicola,Pathogen of Camellia oleifera
    LUO Jianmei, ZHANG Xingyi, WU Jianrong, LIU Li, HONG Yingdi, ZHANG Donghua, YAN Xiaohui
    Chinese Journal of Biological Control    2022, 38 (4): 852-859.   DOI: 10.16409/j.cnki.2095-039x.2022.04.009
    Abstract116)      PDF (1259KB)(281)      
    In order to study the biological control method of Colletotrichum fructicola and develop new botanical pesticides,the inhibitory effects of 70 extracts from 49 plants on C.fruticola were determined by growth rate method.The extracts with significant inhibition activity were screened out,and their antifungal toxicity were determined by concentration gradient test.Petroleum ether extract of Laggera pterodonta and ethyl acetate extract of Leonurus artemisia showed potent antifungal activity against C.fruticola , with inhibitory rates of 54.48% and 50.75%,respectively,at the concentration of 1 mg/mL,and their corresponding medium effective concentrations (EC 50) were 0.7013 and 0.6246 mg/mL,respectively.The above results provided a theoretical basis for further development of botanical fungicides by using L.pterodonta and L.artemisia.
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    Identification of Two Common Larval Parasitic Wasps of Ectropis obliqua and Ectropis grisescens (Lepidoptera: Geometridae)
    ZHOU Xiaogui, Tang Pu, Wu Qiong, GUO Huawei, XIAO Qiang, CHEN Xuexin
    Chinese Journal of Biological Control    2023, 39 (1): 1-9.   DOI: 10.16409/j.cnki.2095-039x.2022.01.003
    Abstract115)      PDF (2715KB)(434)      
    E ctropis obliqua (Prout) and Ectropis grisescens Warren (Lepidopotera: Geometridae) are two of the most destructive chewing pests in China’s tea plantations. Two of the parasitic wasps, which previously reported as Apanteles spp. (Hymenoptera: Braconidae: Microgastrinae), can play important role in controlling Ectropis spp. during the larval stage in nature. In order to determine the species names and morphological differences of the two wasps, and to confirm whether these two species are common parasitic wasps of E. obliqua and E. grisescens, we identified the wasp specimens emerged from E. obliqua and E. grisescens that were collected from 22 locations in 8 provinces of China and reared in the laboratory, and compared the COI sequences of the voucher specimens with those of known species recorded in the BOLD database. The findings revealed that both parasitic wasps emerged from E. obliqua as well as E. grisescens during the larval stage. Based on morphological and molecular data, these two species of Apanteles spp. were identified as Protapanteles immunis (Haliday, 1834) and Parapanteles hyposidrae (Wilkinson, 1928). In conclusion, this study has confirmed the specific species names and morphological characteristics of the two wasps reported as Apanteles sp. in China more than 40 years ago, which are common larval parasitic wasps of E. obliqua and E. grisescens, and the P. immunis is recorded for the first time in China. These results provide a scientific basis for accurately identifying indigenous dominant parasitic wasps, which might help manage E. obliqua and E. grisescens.
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    Identification of a Biocontrol Bacterium Strain against Fusarium graminearum and Its Preliminary Study on Biocontrol Mechanism
    ZHANG Zhen, QIU Haiping, CHAI Rongyao, HAO Zhongna, WANG Jiaoyu, WANG Yanli, SUN Guochang
    Chinese Journal of Biological Control    2022, 38 (3): 673-680.   DOI: 10.16409/j.cnki.2095-039x.2022.02.019
    Abstract111)      PDF (1100KB)(263)      
    In this study, a bacterial strain hzq1601 antagonizing against Fusarium graminearum was isolated from rice stubble by plate antagonism test, and was identified as Bacillus amyloliquefaciens according to its 16S rRNA and gyrB gene sequences. Compatibility analysis between this strain and carbendazim fungicide showed that the strain hzq1601 survived normally in 1000 mg/L carbendazim solution. The results of field experiment showed that the control effect of 10 8 cfu/mL hzq1601 fermentation broth respectively combined with 50% carbendazim WP at the dose of 80 g/667 m 2 and 70 g/667 m 2 on fusarium head blight were 87.1% and 81.0%, that was comparable to that of 50% carbendazim WP at the dose of 100 g/667 m 2 alone, and significantly higher than those of 50% carbendazim WP at the dose of 80 g/667 m 2 or 70 g/667 m 2 alone. The results showed that the combined use of fermentation broth and carbendazim could reduce the application amount of carbendazim, improve the control effect on fusarium head blight. Genomic analysis suggested that the strain hzq1601 harbored 13 secondary metabolite biosynthetic gene clusters, which implied that B.amyloliquefaciens hzq1601 exhibited a multifaceted biocontrol potential.
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