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    Terminologies and Definitions of Microbial Pesticides
    WANG Yiyan, YUAN Shankui, NONG Xiangqun, LI Mei
    Chinese Journal of Biological Control    2022, 38 (2): 283-288.   DOI: 10.16409/j.cnki.2095-039x.2021.07.010
    Abstract175)      PDF (330KB)(496)      
    In this paper, the common terminologies and definitions of microbial pesticides were summarized with reference to the microbial pesticide related guidelines and standards of FAO, WHO and China and in combination with the research progress of microbial classification and identification. The paper provides a reference for scientific cognition of microbial pesticides and promotion the standardized development of the microbial pesticide industry.
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    Control of Maize Aphids by Natural Enemies and Birds under Different Farmland Landscape Patterns in North China
    JIANG Xiaosheng, SUN Yucheng, CHEN Fajun, GE Feng, OUYANG Fang
    Chinese Journal of Biological Control    2021, 37 (5): 863-869.   DOI: 10.16409/j.cnki.2095-039x.2021.09.016
    Abstract168)      PDF (389KB)(379)      
    Farmland landscape pattern shaped by agricultural intensification affects the formation, maintenance and pest-control function of bird and insect natural enemy diversity. Effects of landscape habitats on birds and insect natural enemies and maize aphid populations were analyzed in five different habitats. The results showed that the populations of ladybird ( Propylaea Japonica) and lacewing ( Chrysopa perla) were the largest in farmland landscape with 20% of non-maize fields, while ladybird ( Harmonia axyridis) was the largest in farmland landscape with 30% of non-maize habitats. The farmland landscape with 15%, 20%, 30% and 40% non-maize habitat were conducive to the conservation of Chinese bulbul ( Pycnonotus sinensis) and turtle dove ( Streptopelia turtur), sparrows ( Passer montanus), magpie ( Pica pica) and house swallow ( Hirundo rustica), and hoopoe ( Upupa epops), respectively. The cumulative quantity of maize aphid was the lowest in the farmland landscape with 30% of non-maize habitats. The results of exclusion of birds and natural enemies showed that they had significant control on maize aphid. The farmland landscape with 20% non-maize habitat can conserve more natural enemies and reduce maize aphid, and improve the biological control service of farmland landscape on maize pests.
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    Systematic Strategy of Ecologically Based Pest Management of Insect Pest Population at Landscape Scales
    ZHAO Zihua, MA Jianhua, GAO Feng, ZHANG Rong
    Chinese Journal of Biological Control    2021, 37 (5): 855-862.   DOI: 10.16409/j.cnki.2095-039x.2021.07.001
    Abstract166)      PDF (487KB)(493)      
    In the past decade, the regional distribution and ecologically based pest management (EBPM) of pest populations have become a hot topic in integrated pest management (IPM). Although EBPM techniques have been successfully applied in the field level to control many agricultural pests with sustainable and green characteristics, the systematic strategies of EBPM from field level to regional scale still lack. In order to solve regional EBPM of agricultural pests, we summarized the landscape characteristics of pest population, including regional distribution, heterogeneity, diffusivity, outbreak, and synergy. Then, we clarified the systematic strategies of regional EBPM, which included preventive management, targeted management and post-outbreak control. A regional strategy of prevention, management, and control would be effective to suppress outbreak of agricultural pests. Finally, we summarized the advantage of regional EBPM in the future, which emphasize safety, efficiency, precision and sustainability of insect pest management. Therefore, the regional EBPM is an inevitable choice to ensure the ecological security and agricultural food production in the future.
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    Occurrence of Cicadella viridis and the Biology of Its Egg Parasitoids in Xinjiang
    ZHAO Qian, LIN Siyu, ZHULIDEZI Aishan, ZHONG Wen, HU Hongying
    Chinese Journal of Biological Control    2022, 38 (1): 29-41.   DOI: 10.16409/j.cnki.2095-039x.2021.03.009
    Abstract150)      PDF (2885KB)(503)      
    Cicadella viridis (Linnaeus, 1758) (Hemiptera:Cicadellidae) is an insect pest with wide host range and attacks various crops including maize Zea mays L.. As important biocontrol agents, parasitoids usually provide efficient natural control of insect pests. This study aimed to clarify the occurrence of C. viridis as well as the biological characteristics of its egg parasitoids in Xinjiang, which may provide basic information that can benefit the conservation of native parasitic natural enemies and the biological control of C. viridis via mass-rearing and release of parasitoids. During 2014-2015, the life history of C. viridis was investigated in Manas National Wetland Park. C. viridis had two generations annually and overwintered as eggs in this region. Two egg parasitoid species of C. viridis were identified, Paracentrobia exilimaculata Hu & Lin was a worldwide first report parasitizing C. viridis and Gonatocerus longicornis Nees was a first report in China. The natural parasitism rate by the dominant egg parasitoid G. longicornis peaked in early September (74.96%) and averaged 49.70%. The eclosion rate and the sex ratio increased and then decreased with the increase of temperature from 15℃ to 40℃. The immature stage (from egg to adult emergence) took 9 to 16 days, averaging 14. 25 days. The lifespan of adult wasps fed with 15% honey solution ranged from 6 to12 days (Female:9.38 d; Male:8.50 d), and the females lived 1-2 days longer than the males. The optimal rearing conditions for G. longicornis were 30℃, 45% RH and photoperiod 14L:10D, and these conditions favored its parasitization of C. viridis. The parasitoid has high potential for the biological control against C. viridis.
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    The Landmark Achievements of Biological Pesticides in Comprehensive Technology Development for Reduction and Efficiency Enhancement of Chemical Fertilizers and Pesticides
    ZHANG Hui, XU Ning, CAO Liru, ZHANG Kai
    Chinese Journal of Biological Control    2022, 38 (1): 1-8.   DOI: 10.16409/j.cnki.2095-039x.2022.01.006
    Abstract143)      PDF (583KB)(323)      
    Chemical pesticides, as a necessary input in agricultural production, have greatly promoted crop yield and ensured food security since their invention. However, the abuse of chemical pesticides has caused serious damage to ecological environment and pollution to agricultural products. Biopesticides, as a category of environment-friendly pesticides, are emerging to gradually replace the chemical pesticides in recent years. From 2016 to 2018, a total of 49 projects in 12 tasks were launched with the "Comprehensive Technology Research and Development for Reduction and Efficiency Improvement of Chemical Fertilizers and Pesticide" project, which was aimed to solve the problems of excessive application of chemical fertilizers and pesticides and backward product development. The implementation of this project greatly promoted green pesticide research and application in China. The product development, patent application, standard formulation, monograph publication, and application of biological pesticide related with the project were introduced in this paper, hoping to provide references for relevant researchers, production and business entities, administrative departments and users.
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    Main Types and Management of Common Formulations of Microbial Pesticides in China
    WANG Yiyan, YUAN Shankui, NONG Xiangqun, LI Mei
    Chinese Journal of Biological Control    2021, 37 (4): 640-645.   DOI: 10.16409/j.cnki.2095-039x.2021.07.011
    Abstract140)      PDF (321KB)(405)      
    This paper summarized the definitions, characteristics, and registration status of the common formulations of microbial pesticides, as well as the various items for quality control of each formulation product. The current problems in the management of microbial pesticide formulations were analyzed, and some suggestions for improvement. The purpose is to enhance the scientific management of microbial pesticide formulations and promote the industry development.
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    Lacewing Density and Dynamics on Different Weeds in Cotton-growing Region of Northern Xinjiang
    LIU Yangtian, LIU Bing, LI hui, LIU Jiamei, WANG Peiling, LU Yanhui
    Chinese Journal of Biological Control    2021, 37 (4): 671-678.   DOI: 10.16409/j.cnki.2095-039x.2021.03.015
    Abstract136)      PDF (1110KB)(367)      
    In 2015-2017, the densities and dynamics of lacewings on 17 common weeds around cotton fields were systematically investigated using a sweeping method in the northern Xinjiang cotton-growing region. The results indicated there were six lacewing species in weed strips of northern Xinjiang, with the dominant species of Chrysopa carnea (64.8%) and Chrysopa phyllochroma (25.8%). The density of lacewings varied significantly on different weeds. Medicago sativa and Cannabis sativa harbored significantly higher lacewing densities among all weed species in 2015 and 2016, respectively. Higher densities of lacewings were found on Glycyrrhiza uralensis, Apocynum venetum, Sophora alopecuroides in 2017. Besides, obvious seasonal fluctuation of lacewing density was also observed. The density of lacewings during flowering and boll-opening stages of cotton (July-September) was significantly higher than that in cotton seedling and bud stages (May-June). This study clarified population composition, densities, and dynamics of lacewings on various weeds adjacent to cotton fields in northern Xinjiang. M. sativa, C. sativa, G. uralensis, A. venetum, and S. alopecuroides were proved to have the potential as functional plants for lacewing conservation. These results provide a scientific basis to promote the conservation and biological control service of predatory lacewings.
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    Screening of a Metarhizium rileyi Strain and Its Virulences to Spodoptera frugiperda (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae)
    LONG Xiuzhen, GAO Xuyuan, ZENG Xianru, HE Zhan, WEI Dewei, JIANG Xiaodong, ZENG Tao, YU Yonghao
    Chinese Journal of Biological Control    2021, 37 (6): 1111-1119.   DOI: 10.16409/j.cnki.2095-039x.2021.05.015
    Abstract132)      PDF (1745KB)(467)      
    It is crucial for green prevention and control of Spodoptera frugiperda to collect and screen biocontrol strains with high virulence against S. frugiperda. In this study, a fungus was isolated from diseased larvae of S. frugiperda collected in Nanning, Guangxi. The species was identified using morphological characterization and ITS-rDNA sequence analysis, and the pathogenicity of the strain to the larvae, prepupa, and pupa of S. frugiperda were determined by immersion method in the laboratory. The pathogen was identified as Metarhizium rileyi, named CDTLJ1, could infect the larvae, prepupa, and pupa of S. frugiperda. The 1.20×10 7 conidia/mL concentration treatment caused 100%, 100%, 100%, 100%, 98.33%, 28.33%, and 20.00% corrected mortality of 2 nd, 3 rd, 4 th, 5 th and 6 th instar larvae, prepupa, and pupa on the 6 th day post treatment, and resulted in median lethal time (LT50) values of 3.91 d—4.24 d for the 2 nd to 6 th instar larvae. The mortality rate of the 3 rd instar larvae caused by infection of M. rileyi strain CDTLJ1 increased with the rising of concentration of conidial suspension. When the concentration reached 1×10 8 conidia/mL, LT50 was 4.10 d, the corrected accumulative mortality reached 100% and the median lethal concentration (LC 50) was 1.12×10 4 conidia/mL on the 6 th day post treatment. These results show that the M. rileyi strain CDTLJ1 has a high biocontrol potential for use against S. frugiperda and deserves further research and utilization.
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    Control of Tea Pests by the Banker Plant System of Orius strigicollis- Vicia faba-Aphis fabae
    LIU Mei, ZHANG Changrong, BAN Feixue, LIU Shaolan, RAN Qianjun, SHANG Xiaoli, ZENG Guang, CAO Yu, SUN Yuehua
    Chinese Journal of Biological Control    2021, 37 (5): 936-945.   DOI: 10.16409/j.cnki.2095-039x.2021.05.008
    Abstract125)      PDF (12353KB)(412)      
    As a new biological control method, banker plant system is of high control efficacy and application value. Aphis fabae prefers leguminous plants and is safe to tea plant, and is a prey that can satisfy the growth and reproduction needs of Orius strigicollis. Therefore a banker plant system consisting of A. fabae as alternative prey, Vicia faba as banker plant, and O. strigicollis as natural enemy was established to control tea pests. The control efficacy of the banker plant system was compared with that of the direct release of O. strigicollis on the tea aphid Toxoptera aurnantii in the laboratory. T. aurnantii, Dendrothrips minowai and Empoasca onukii, the three principal pest species in tea plants, can all be preyed by O. strigicollis. The control efficacy of the banker plant system and the direct release of O. strigicollis on the three pests were also investigated in field experiment. The results showed that, in the laboratory experiment, the population size of T. aurnantii was significantly lower and the population decline rate and control efficacy of T. aumantii were significantly higher in the banker plant system than in the direct release of O. strigicollis in the first three surveys. The banker plant system achieved control efficacy as high as 92.16%, while the direct release of O. strigicollis reached control efficacy of only 72.25%, indicating a potential of the banker plant system to be used in the field for tea pest control. In the field experiment, the layout of the banker plants (strips, blocks and dots) showed no significant influence on the control efficacy of tea pests. Both the banker plant system and the direct release of O. strigicollis resulted in significant control of E. onukii, as high as 90%, but they did not have significant control of T. aurnantii and D. minowai. These results indicate potential of both the banker plant system and the direct release of O. strigicollis for control of tea pests, but depending on the co-occurring pest species.
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    Screening of Efficient Metarhizium anisopliae Strains for Frankliniella occidentalis and Its Application in Peanut Field
    PEI Songsong, WU Xuan, LI Ruijun, ZHAO Dan, LU Xiujun, GUO Wei
    Chinese Journal of Biological Control    2021, 37 (4): 732-739.   DOI: 10.16409/j.cnki.2095-039x.2021.03.013
    Abstract119)      PDF (437KB)(381)      
    Frankliniella occidentalis is a worldwide quarantine pest, which can cause serious yield reduction of many leguminous host plants, including peanuts. Metarhizium anisopliae plays an important role in biological control of F. occidentalis. In this study, the M18-8-4 Strains were screened out from 23 M. anisopliae strains, of which the F1 and F2 strains were obtained by UV mutagenesis. In this study, the high toxic strains were obtained through toxicity tests in the laboratory, and their control of F. occidentalis was tested in the field. The results showed that, when tested at the same concentration of spore suspension, the strain F2-M18-8-4 had the strongest laboratory toxicity to F. occidentalis, with a median lethal time of 2.13 d. The control efficacies of F2-M18-8-4 and 3 chemical pesticides on F. occidentalis were evaluated in terms of the corrected population decline rate of F. occidentalis, the corrected peanut leaf protection rate, and the peanut yield increase rate. The corrected population decline rate of F. occidentalis did not differ significantly between F2-M18-8-4 and the 3 chemical pesticides at 7 days and 10 days post application, whereas at 15 days post application, the corrected population decline rate of F. occidentalis was higher in F2-M18-8-4 than in the 3 pesticides reaching 79.52%; and the peanut leaf protection rate was the highest, up to 63.58%, followed by Spinetoram at 58.11%. The peanut yield increase rate of F2-M18-8-4 was 9.09%. The results suggest the highly virulent strains can substitute for chemical pesticides in the control of F. occidentalis.
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    Investigation of the Natural Enemies of Spodoptera frugiperda and Evaluation of Their Control Effect in Maize Fields in Jiangsu Province
    NIU Hongtao, HU Hui, ZHANG Zhichun, ZHAO Dongxiao, ZHAO Jing, WANG Na, GUO Huifang
    Chinese Journal of Biological Control    2021, 37 (6): 1152-1159.   DOI: 10.16409/j.cnki.2095-039x.2021.03.021
    Abstract119)      PDF (848KB)(437)      
    Jiangsu Province is one of the invasion areas of Spodoptera frugiperda in China. The local potential natural enemies of S. frugiperda in Jiangsu Province and their control of S. frugiperda in maize fields were investigated during August to September 2020 in the main corn planting areas of 8 cities or counties in Jiangsu Province. The results showed that the infestation rate of S. frugiperda to maize plants was more than 50% in all the survey sites. The main species of natural enemies were parasitic wasps ( Campoletis chloride; Microgatrinae; Braconidae), entomopathogenic fungi ( Beauveria, Metarhizium, Nomuraea rileyi), and ladybugs ( Harmonia axyridis; Scymnus (Neopullus) hoffmanni Weise), and many other species of natural enemies such as parasitic flies, bacteria, and viruses. The parasitism rate of parasitic natural enemy insects was between 0% and 24.55%, and the infection rate of entomopathogenic microorganisms was between 2.33% and 56.41%, which shows high potential for preventing and controlling S. frugiperda. Although the occurrence of S. frugiperda in corn fields in Jiangsu Province is serious, the rich resources of natural enemies can provide reliable prevention and control of S. frugiperda.
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    Review on Registration and Management of Bio-pesticide in China
    ZHANG Hongjun, TAO Lingmei, LIU Xue, HUANG Xiuzhu
    Chinese Journal of Biological Control    2022, 38 (1): 9-17.   DOI: 10.16409/j.cnki.2095-039x.2022.01.012
    Abstract117)      PDF (417KB)(323)      
    The bio-pesticides include biochemical pesticides, microbial pesticides, and botanical pesticides. Even though the percentage of bio-pesticides in the market is not very high, it is hopeful for the development of bio-pesticides. The bio-pesticides could help to reduce the usage of chemical pesticides, confirm the safety of agricultural products, ecological environment and pest control in the specific crops. The recent status of bio-pesticides registration management, the achievements of the bio-pesticides industry, some problems were summarized and discussed in this paper. Some helpful suggestions for the development of bio-pesticides in the future were also pointed out for the reference of the relative stakeholders for bio-pesticides.
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    Effect of Nectar Plant Cosmos bipinnata on the Population Dynamics of Predatory Natural Enemies
    FANG Yan, WANG Jie, TAN Yang, WANG Su, JIN Zhenyu, LI Shu
    Chinese Journal of Biological Control    2021, 37 (5): 877-884.   DOI: 10.16409/j.cnki.2095-039x.2021.07.025
    Abstract111)      PDF (421KB)(462)      
    Nectar plant, an important part of conservation biological control, can support the colonization of natural enemies in filed and enhance pest biological control. In order to evaluate the effect of nectar plants on natural enemies, population dynamics of natural enemies and pests in Cosmos bipinnata, Lythrum salicaria, Symphyotrichum novi-belgii strips were compared with those in the natural weed area, and the impact of cosmos on ladybird and aphid populations were evaluated under different planting densities. Results showed that, in comparison with the natural weed area, the population size of natural enemies and pests in L. salicaria was higher, and the population size of natural enemies in cosmos strip was higher while that of the pests was less, where the predatory ladybirds were the dominant natural enemies. The population size of ladybirds and aphids in cosmos differed significantly between planting densities, higher in cosmos strip with 50% planting density than that with 100% planting density, and the ratio of natural enemies to pests was significantly higher in cosmos strips of the two planting densities than that of the natural weed area. This study indicates that cosmos strip attracts and conserves natural enemies in filed and can be potentially used as nectar plants in habitat management for conservation biological control.
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    Screening and Insecticidal Activity of Bacillus thuringiensis Strains with High Toxicity against Spodoptera frugiperda
    WANG Jian, YANG Xiaoxue, WANG Dandan, ZAHNG Jie, SHU Changlong, GAO Jiguo, GENG Lili
    Chinese Journal of Biological Control    2021, 37 (4): 660-670.   DOI: 10.16409/j.cnki.2095-039x.2021.03.008
    Abstract110)      PDF (1755KB)(329)      
    Spodoptera frugiperda (J. E. Smith), a major agricultural pest in the world, causes serious damage to many major food and economic crops, such as corn. It is urgent to screen highly virulent Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) strain resources to achieve high-efficiency, green and sustained control of S. frugiperda. Based on the difference of insecticidal genes and the evolutionary relationships among strains, 172 candidate strains were obtained from the 363 wild strains by eliminating repetition strains, which were stored in the laboratory and showed insecticidal activity against Spodoptera litura and Agrotis ypsilon. The spores and crystal mixtures of these strains were obtained by culture. Their virulence against S. frugiperda was tested after quantification of insecticidal proteins, and 27 Bt strains were obtained for their high virulence. The most virulent strain was B14-D2, with LC 50 of 0.155 μg/g. The cry1Ea3 gene in this strain was cloned and expressed in crystal-free mutant HD73 -. The LC 50 of Cry1Ea3 protein against neonates of S. frugiperda was 1.789 μg/g. This research adds to the Bt strain resources for the development of new Bt products.
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    Development of Paenibacillus polymyxa P1 Suspension Concentrate
    YU Wenqian, LI Hongyu, CHEN Chen, WU Ziyan, SONG Xiaoyu, MAO Weili
    Chinese Journal of Biological Control    2021, 37 (5): 1007-1015.   DOI: 10.16409/j.cnki.2095-039x.2021.06.007
    Abstract109)      PDF (415KB)(254)      
    By using the methods of flow point, biocompatibility assay, orthogonal test etc, a variety of screening tests were conducted for all of the adjuvants added in the formulation of suspension concentrate with a strain P1 of Paenibacillus polymyxa (P1-SC). The results showed that, when the formulation of P1-SC was prepared as:P1 was 10% (≥ 10.18 lg cfu/g), both wetting dispersant of 500 # and MOA-7 were 2.5%, thickeners of magnesium aluminum silicate and xanthan gum were 0.75% and 0.15% respectively, antiseptic agent C25 was 0.20%, antifreeze of propanol was 3%, silicone anti-foaming agent was 0.3%, and finally adding soft water to make it up to 100%, the viable P1 spores in P1-SC were ≥ 9.18 lgcfu/mL, the fineness (through 75 µm sieve) was ≥ 95%, the pH value was 5.0-8.0, the amount of long-lasting foaming (after 1 min) was ≤ 30 mL, the residual mass after dumping was ≤ 5.0%, and the residual mass after washing was ≤ 0.5%, the suspension rate was ≥ 90%, which means it reaches the detection standards of an enterprise for a SC formulation. Meanwhile, the shelf life of P1 spores in prepared P1-SC was measured under different temperatures. A 6-month storage test revealed that the number of viable P1 decreased about 6% when stored at 45℃,however, it did not change much when stored at 4℃ and 25℃, respectively.
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    Control Efficacy of Biopesticide Bacillus thuringiensis G033A Combined with Reduced Low Dose Chemical Pesticides on Spodoptera frugiperda
    HU Fei, XU Tingting, HU Benjin, BI Sijia, TONG Qiang, XU Lina, ZHANG Jie
    Chinese Journal of Biological Control    2021, 37 (6): 1103-1110.   DOI: 10.16409/j.cnki.2095-039x.2021.00.010
    Abstract108)      PDF (388KB)(334)      
    To improve the application efficiency of biological pesticides in the field and reduce the use of chemical pesticides, the laboratory bioassay and field trials for control of Spodoptera frugiperda were conducted through combination of Bacillus thuringiensis G033A and reduced dosages of chemical pesticides. It was showed that the corrected mortality rates of the 3 rd instar larvae were 99.07%, 87.04%, 85.19%, 80.56%; 20.37%, 11.11%, 6.48%, 1.85%; and 68.52%, 66.67%, 60.19%, 27.78%, respectively, after 24 h treated through 5% emamectin benzoate (0.2 g/L, 0.15 g/L, 0.1 g/L, 0.05 g/L), 200 g/L chlorantraniliprole (0.3 g/L, 0.225 g/L, 0.15 g/L, 0.075 g/L), 15% emamectin·chlorantraniliprole (0.3 g/L, 0.225 g/L, 0.15 g/L, 0.075 g/L). However, the mortality rates of larvae were 100.00%, 99.07%, 91.67% and 87.96%; 58.33%, 25.93%, 23.15% and 8.33%; 83.33%, 77.78%, 63.89% and 41.67%, when the 3 pesticides above were combined used with G033A (1.5 g/L), which were significantly higher than the pesticides used alone. Field experiments showed that after 15 days of combined application of reduced 25%, 50% dosage of emamectin benzoate and G033A, the control effects were 66.77% and 70.64%, respectively, which were significantly higher than the control effects of 44.43% of the reference dose used alone. The control effect of chlorantraniliprole, or emamectin·chlorantraniliprole combined with G033A for 5 and 15 days were higher than the reference dose of two chemical pesticides used alone. Field experiments showed that the combined use of G033A and reduced dosage of chemical pesticides could not only significantly improve the insecticidal activity of G033A, but also improve the efficacy of chemical pesticides and its quick efficacy. G033A (75 g) +5% emamectin benzoate (5 g), G033A (75 g) +200 g/L chlorantraniliprole (11.25 g), G033A (75 g) +15% emamectin·chlorantraniliprole (15 g), G033A (75 g) +15% emamectin·chlorantraniliprole (10 g) all have good control effect on Spodoptera frugiperda in field.
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    The Progress and Prospects of Biological Pesticide-Wuyiencin
    GE Beibei, SHI Lining, ZHANG Wei, YANG Miaoling, Lü Chaoyang, ZHANG Kecheng
    Chinese Journal of Biological Control    2021, 37 (4): 655-659.   DOI: 10.16409/j.cnki.2095-039x.2021.07.008
    Abstract107)      PDF (349KB)(333)      
    Wuyiencin is a kind of biological pesticide with independent intellectual property rights in China, which has been created a series of products of 1%, 2% and 3%. As a kind of low toxicity, high efficiency and broad spectrum nucleoside microbial secondary metabolite, it has a good effect on the prevention and control of fungal diseases of various crops. This paper summarized the research progress of Wuyiencin in the past 40 years included the aspects as following:product creation, high-yield strain selection, fermentation and extraction technology, field application, etc., In addition, it also prospected the problems of Wuyiencin existing in the industrialization development and analyzed the focus issues in future.
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    Vertical Distribution of Wood-boring Pests and Its Parasitic Wasp in Pinus tabulaeformis
    YANG Liyuan, LIU Renjun, ZHAO Xiaofei, HUANG Shi, HUA Jie, SUN Shouhui
    Chinese Journal of Biological Control    2021, 37 (4): 701-708.   DOI: 10.16409/j.cnki.2095-039x.2021.03.019
    Abstract104)      PDF (1920KB)(390)      
    Pinus tabulaeformis Carr. is the main afforestation and ornamental species in Shenyang area. To clarify the occurrence of wood-boring pests in P. tabulaeformis at the first occurrence site of Pine Wilt Disease (PWD) in Shenyang and the parasitic natural enemy species, we investigated the species, emergence period, and vertical distribution of wood-boring pests and their parasitic natural enemies in P. tabulaeformis using the wood segmental dissection and cage feeding methods, from March 2019 to October 2019. In March, larvae of three longicorn species were found in the dissected quarantine timber of PWD. From April to October, eleven species from four families (subfamilies) wood-boring pests, and parasitic wasp adults were collected continuously from the insect cages. The dominant wood-boring pests species ranked as Cryphalus fulvus Niisima, Tomicus minor (Hartig), Rhagium inquisitor (Linnaeus), Arhopalus rusticus (Linnaeus), Acanthocinus griseus (Fabricius), Hylastes plumbeus Blandford, and Asemum striatum (Linnaeus). The dominant parasitic wasp species ranked as Atanycolus initiator (Fabricius), Spathius sp., Rhyssa jozana Matsumura, and Pseudorhyssa nigricornis (Ratzeburg). Dissection tests of quarantine timber revealed that population size of R. inquisitor and A. griseus larvae did not differ in different parts of the trunk. Arhopalus rusticus larvae were of the highest population size in the bottom part and were more than those in the middle and upper part. Cryphalus fulvus dominated in the middle and upper part of P. tabulaeformis trunk, T. minor was the most at the trunk height of 2.0-4.0 m, A. griseus and R. inquisitor were of relatively uniform population size at different trunk heights, A. rusticus dominated in the bottom part of the trunk, A. initiator was the dominant species, especially at the trunk height of 2.0-4.0 m, Spathius sp. distributed more at the trunk height of 4.0-10.0 m. The results specified in this paper are of great significance for the control of local pests and further development and utilization of insect natural enemy resources.
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    Effect of Microbial Agents Dress Seeds on Peanut Soil-borne Diseases and Yield
    ZHAO Yanli, GUO Li, HUI Xianghai, WANG Xianghui, XU Ling, GUAN Xiumin, ZHAO Zhonghua
    Chinese Journal of Biological Control    2021, 37 (6): 1250-1255.   DOI: 10.16409/j.cnki.2095-039x.2021.06.020
    Abstract102)      PDF (356KB)(310)      
    In order to explore the effects of microbial agents on peanut root diseases and yield, we selected 100 billion CFU/mL Bacillus amyloliquefaciens, 20 billion CFU/mL Paenibacillus polymyxa, 100 million CFU/g fungal biocontrol strains (TB) and 25% fludioxoni, by seed dressing to carry out the field efficacy test. Six treatments were set: 100 billion CFU/mL B. amyloliquefaciens, 20 billion CFU/mL P. polymyxa, 100 million CFU/g fungal biocontrol strains, 100 billion CFU/mL B. amyloliquefaciens + 100 million CFU/g fungal biocontrol strains, 20 billion CFU/mL P. polymyxa + 100 million CFU/g fungal biocontrol strains, and 25% fludioxoni. The experimental varieties was No.8 Luhua. All of the tested agents had certain effects on peanut yield increase, and peanut root rot and Sclerotium blight. The seedling emergence rate, yield increase rate were the highest by 100 billion CFU/mL B. amyloliquefaciens + 100 million CFU/g fungal biocontrol strains (TB), which were 94.35% and 23.15%, respectively. Thirty days after seedling emergence, the control efficiency on peanut root rot was 76.95%. And after 60 days, the control efficiency on peanut root rot and Sclerotium rolfsii reached 83.54% and 83.88%. That has high application prospect on agricultural green prevention and control technology extension.
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    Effects of Supplemental Nutrition on the Survival and Reproduction of Spodoptera frugiperda (Smith)
    FENG Bo, ZHU Xiaoming, ZHONG Ling, WANG Xi, LIANG Shuping, LIU Wancai, GUO Qianshuang, DU Yongjun
    Chinese Journal of Biological Control    2021, 37 (6): 1172-1178.   DOI: 10.16409/j.cnki.2095-039x.2021.05.009
    Abstract101)      PDF (399KB)(429)      
    Spodoptera frugiperda (Smith) is a long-distance migratory pest and feeds during the adult stage. However, the role of adult feeding of water and sugar in mating and reproduction is not clear. In this study, the effects of adult feeding on the survival, ovarian development, and reproduction of S. frugiperda were investigated by means of ovarian anatomy and behavioral observation. It was found that, without feeding, the moths had a short survival (about 3 days), immature ovaries (below grade 2), low mating rate (22.00%), very few oviposition (5.8 eggs), and nearly no hatched eggs (3.0%). However, the moths fed with water and sugar had longer survival (6—8 days), more mature ovaries (3.4—3.6 grades), higher mating rate (61.1%—66.7%), larger number of oviposition (436—1281 eggs), and higher rate of hatched eggs (more than 95%). Feeding had no significant effect on the mating number of mated females (1.1—1.7 times) and the mating rate of immature females (18.2%—22.9%). The longevity (8.06 days) and fecundity (1281 eggs) of female moths fed with sugar solution were significantly higher than those fed with pure water (6.57 days and 436 eggs, respectively), while there were no significant differences in survival time of male moths, ovarian development grade, mating rate and egg hatching rate between the two groups. Our results show that water is the necessary supplement for the survival and reproduction of S. frugiperda, and sugar only increases the fecundity of female moth. These results provide a basis for the accurate monitoring and effective control of S. frugiperda.
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